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Table 1 Hazard ratios for outcomes during follow-up by history of major PAD at baseline

From: Presentations of major peripheral arterial disease and risk of major outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes: results from the ADVANCE-ON study

  Baseline history of major PAD Hazard ratios (major PAD vs. not)
No (n = 10,624) Yes (n = 516) Model 1 Model 2
HR 95 % CI p HR 95 % CI p
All-cause mortality, n (%) 2101 (19.8) 164 (31.8) 1.57 1.33–1.84 <0.0001 1.35 1.15–1.60 0.0004
Major macrovascular events, n (%) 2025 (19.1) 141 (27.3) 1.59 1.34–1.88 <0.0001 1.47 1.23–1.75 <0.0001
Cardiovascular death, n (%) 904 (8.5) 84 (16.3) 1.99 1.59–2.49 <0.0001 1.75 1.39–2.21 <0.0001
Myocardial infarction, n (%) 665 (6.3) 57 (11.0) 1.76 1.34–2.31 <0.0001 1.58 1.19–2.09 0.001
Stroke, n (%) 924 (8.7) 44 (8.5) 1.24 0.92–1.68 0.16 1.19 0.87–1.62 0.28
Major clinical microvascular events, n (%) 763 (7.2) 44 (8.5) 1.43 1.05–1.94 0.02 1.31 0.96–1.78 0.09
Retinal photocoagulation or blindness, n (%) 632 (5.9) 37 (7.2) 1.48 1.06–2.07 0.02 1.39 0.99–1.95 0.05
End-stage renal disease or renal death, n (%) 160 (1.5) 8 (1.6) 1.15 0.56–2.34 0.71 0.96 0.46–1.97 0.90
  1. Model 1: adjusted for region of origin, sex, age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, history of ever smoking, and study allocations. Model 2: adjusted as in model 1 plus duration of diabetes, HbA1c, waist circumference, heart rate, diastolic blood pressure, disturbance of 10-g monofilament sensation, absence of ankle and knee reflexes, estimated glomerular filtration rate (and its square for macrovascular analyses), total-, and HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, use of antihypertensive, lipid lowering and antiplatelet drugs, and history of current alcohol drinking. p < 0.05 was significant