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Table 4 Comparison of cookie meal test data between baseline and 6 months, and comparison of absolute change from baseline between the two groups

From: Effects of 6-month eicosapentaenoic acid treatment on postprandial hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, insulin secretion ability, and concomitant endothelial dysfunction among newly-diagnosed impaired glucose metabolism patients with coronary artery disease. An open label, single blinded, prospective randomized controlled trial

Variable Non-EPA group (n = 53) EPA group (n = 54) P value
Baseline 6-month Baseline 6-month
Glucose tolerance test
 NGT (n, %) 0 (0.0 %) 3 (5.7 %) 0 (0.0 %) 16 (29.6 %)** 0.001
 IGT (n, %) 37 (69.8 %) 35 (66.0 %) 38 (70.4 %) 31 (57.4 %) 0.36
 DM (n, %) 16 (30.2 %) 15 (28.3 %) 16 (29.6 %) 7 (13.0 %)* 0.05
Fasting PG (mg/dL) 111.2 ± 10.4 109.9 ± 10.8 105.8 ± 11.1 104.5 ± 9.1 0.009
 Absolute Δ −1.0 (−6.0, 4.0) −1.0 (−5.0, 4.0) 0.69
PG-1h (mg/dL) 200.3 ± 32.9 197.0 ± 33.3 190.9 ± 34.4 172.9 ± 26.8** 0.0001
 Absolute Δ −5.0 (−23.0, 14.0) −15.5 (−33.0, 1.0) 0.006
PG-2h (mg/dL) 185.1 ± 25.5 180.1 ± 30.8 179.7 ± 32.5 162.2 ± 32.9** 0.004
 Absolute Δ −9.0 (−21.3, 19.3) −18.0 (−33.0, 0.0) 0.03
AUC-PG 348.5 ± 42.1 342.0 ± 46.9 333.2 ± 48.9 306.4 ± 41.4** 0.0001
 Absolute Δ −7.0 (−13.3, 2.1) −22.3 (−45.0, 10.0) 0.002
Incremental glucose peak (mg/dL) 95.0 ± 27.7 92.1 ± 29.1 90.9 ± 30.3 75.4 ± 26.2** 0.002
 Absolute Δ −6.0 (−19.3, 15.3) −16.5 (−33.0, −2.0) 0.006
Fasting IRI (µU/mL) 6.4 ± 3.3 6.1 ± 2.9 6.6 ± 3.4 6.5 ± 3.0 0.49
 Absolute Δ −0.1 (−1.4, 0.7) −0.2 (−2.0, 1.8) 0.63
IRI-1h (µU/mL) 53.9 ± 29.7 50.7 ± 25.2 54.3 ± 32.2 57.3 ± 29.8 0.28
 Absolute Δ 0.1 (−10.6, 10.4) 0.7 (−7.0, 13.1) 0.27
IRI-2h (µU/mL) 64.4 ± 30.2 58.6 ± 27.2 61.8 ± 35.0 60.1 ± 30.5 0.78
 Absolute Δ −6.0 (−15.3, 5.2) 2.5 (−15.5, 10.9) 0.2
AUC-IRI 89.3 ± 42.1 83.0 ± 36.6 88.5 ± 48.3 89.7 ± 42.4 0.38
 Absolute Δ −3.7 (−19.5, 8.6) 4.9 (−7.4, 11.4) 0.08
AUC-IRI/AUC-PG 0.23 (0.18, 0.35) 0.24 (0.17, 0.29) 0.24 (0.17, 0.33) 0.27 (0.19, 0.36)** 0.06
 Absolute Δ −0.01 (−0.04, 0.03) 0.02 (−0.01, 0.06) 0.003
Fasting TG (mg/dL) 123.3 ± 59.2 120.8 ± 62.2 137.8 ± 67.6 103.0 ± 38.1** 0.10
 Absolute Δ −3.0 (−35.0, 19.0) −24.0 (−54.0, −3.0) 0.005
TG-1h (mg/dL) 138.5 ± 61.8 136.2 ± 64.0 150.7 ± 64.7 121.1 ± 37.7** 0.17
 Absolute Δ 0.0 (−29.5, 16.5) −20.5 (−57.0, 4.0) 0.01
TG-2h (mg/dL) 168.9 ± 74.8 171.6 ± 89.3 198.3 ± 78.7 150.8 ± 44.7** 0.14
 Absolute Δ −2.0 (−33.8, 27.3) −42.0 (−80.0, 10.0) 0.0001
AUC-TG 285.0 ± 126.5 282.0 ± 137.3 316.8 ± 135.1 250.0 ± 76.3** 0.13
 Absolute Δ −5.5 (−60.5, 37.3) −51.5 (−127.0, 5.0) 0.002
Incremental TG peak (mg/dL) 45.2 ± 31.2 51.9 ± 43.7 60.5 ± 29.8† 47.8 ± 24.7* 0.54
 Absolute Δ 4.0 (−12.0, 21.3) −11.5 (−24.0, 3.0) 0.005
  1. P values represent comparison of each values between groups at 6 months except for absolute Δ
  2. As for absolute Δ of each values, P values represent comparison between the two groups
  3. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation or medians and interquartile ranges, as indicated
  4. DM diabetes mellitus, IGT impaired glucose tolerance, NGT normal glucose toleransce, PG plasma glucose, AUC area under the response curve, IRI immune reactive insulin, TG triglyceride
  5.  P < 0.05 vs baseline values of non-EPA group
  6. * P < 0.01 vs baseline, ** P < 0.0001 vs baseline