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Table 3 Adjusted OR and 95 % CIs for diabetic retinopathy by vitamin D status stratified by age, sex, race, duration of diabetes, and HbA1c levels among Caucasian and African American ARIC study participants classified as having diabetes, with gradable eye photo at visit 3 (1993–95), and available serum 25(OH)D concentrations at visit 2 (1990–92) (N = 1339)

From: Adequate vitamin D status is associated with the reduced odds of prevalent diabetic retinopathy in African Americans and Caucasians

  Vitamin D status assessed with serum 25(OH)D concentrations (nmol/L)
  <30 deficient 30 to <50 inadequate 50 to <75 adequate ≥75 adequate p trend* Continuous, per 10 nmol/L
Age group
 47 to 54 years (n = 471)
   #with DR/# in group 8/40 40/172 33/195 10/64   
  Adjusted OR (95 % CI)a 1 1.20 (0.42–3.44) 0.90 (0.31–2.64) 1.44 (0.39–5.25) 0.800 1.02 (0.87–1.20)
 55–59 years (n = 356)
   #with DR/# in group 6/26 24/124 30/147 7/59   
  Adjusted OR (95 % CI) 1 0.84 (0.23–3.04) 1.12 (0.31–4.08) 0.88 (0.19–4.07) 0.686 0.96 (0.80–1.16)
 60–64 years (n = 332)
  #with DR/# in group 9/19 30/103 35/149 5/61   
  Adjusted OR (95 % CI) 1 0.43 (0.14–1.36) 0.39 (0.12–1.20) 0.10 (0.02–0.45) 0.011 0.80 (0.68–0.95)
 65 to 68 years (n = 180)
  #with DR/# in group 5/11 17/55 17/86 4/28   
  Adjusted OR (95 % CI) 1 0.64 (0.13–3.09) 0.38 (0.08–1.81) 0.27 (0.04–1.69) 0.203 0.86 (0.68–1.08)
 p for interaction 0.372      
Sex
 Men (n = 629)
  #with DR/# in group 5/18 38/161 64/323 12/127   
  Adjusted OR (95 % CI) 1 0.67 (0.19–2.36) 0.52 (0.15–1.79) 0.23 (0.06–0.89) 0.019 0.85 (0.75–0.97)
 Women (n = 710)
   #with DR/# in group 23/78 73/293 51/254 14/85   
  Adjusted OR (95 % CI) 1 0.80 (0.41–1.59) 0.68 (0.33–1.38) 0.78 (0.31–1.97) 0.262 0.93 (0.82–1.05)
 p for interaction 0.320      
Race  
 Caucasian (n = 906)
  #with DR/# in group 10/38 55/249 73/428 23/191   
  Adjusted OR (95 % CI) 1 0.72 (0.29–1.81) 0.52 (0.21–1.28) 0.40 (0.15–1.07) 0.072 0.91 (0.82–1.01)
African American (n = 433)
  #with DR/# in group 18/58 56/205 42/149 3/21   
  Adjusted OR (95 % CI) 1 0.89 (0.42–1.89) 0.98 (0.45–2.16) 0.45 (0.10–2.15) 0.268 0.91 (0.77–1.08)
 p for interaction 0.555      
Duration of diabetes,
 <6 years (n = 593)
 #with DR/# in group 5/44 13/195 15/256 1/98   
 Adjusted OR (95 % CI) 1 0.53 (0.17–1.60) 0.48 (0.16–1.45) 0.08 (0.01–0.72) 0.014 0.77 (0.62–0.95)
 ≥6 years (n = 746)
 #with DR/# in group 23/52 98/259 100/321 25/114   
 Adjusted OR (95 % CI) 1 0.99 (0.50–1.95) 0.84 (0.43–1.65) 0.68 (0.30–1.52) 0.219 0.94 (0.85–1.04)
p for interaction 0.417      
HBA1c levels       
  ≤7 % (adequate control) (n = 756)
  #with DR/# in group 5/47 21/241 16/326 4/142   
  Adjusted OR (95 % CI) 1 0.75 (0.26–2.13) 0.44 (0.15–1.29) 0.26 (0.06–1.07) 0.091 0.86 (0.73–1.02)
  >7 % (inadequate control) (n = 583)
  #with DR/# in group 23/49 90/213 99/251 22/70   
  Adjusted OR (95 % CI) 1 0.93 (0.47–1.83) 0.89 (0.45–1.77) 0.65 (0.28–1.51) 0.163 0.93 (0.83–1.03)
p for interaction 0.290      
  1. * p for trend calculated using serum 25(OH)D as a continuous variable
  2. aModel adjusted for race, duration of diabetes, HbA1c (continuous), and hypertension status. Strata of HbA1c are further adjusted for continuous levels of HBA1c