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Table 2 Crude and adjusted OR and 95 % CIs for the diabetic retinopathy by vitamin D status among Caucasian and African American ARIC study participants classified as having diabetes and having gradable eye photos at visit 3 (1993–95), and available serum 25(OH)D concentrations at visit 2 (1990–92) (N = 1339)

From: Adequate vitamin D status is associated with the reduced odds of prevalent diabetic retinopathy in African Americans and Caucasians

Model Vitamin D status defined by serum 25(OH)D concentrations (nmol/L)
  <30 deficient 30 to <50 inadequate 50 to <75 adequate ≥75 adequate p trend* Continuous, per 10 nmol/L
#With retinopathy/#in category 28/96 111/454 115/577 26/212   
Crude model 1 0.79 (0.48–1.28) 0.61 (0.37–0.98) 0.34 (0.19–0.62) <0.001 0.85 (0.79–0.92)
Model 1a 1 0.77 (0.45–1.32) 0.64 (0.37–1.10) 0.39 (0.20–0.75) 0.001 0.87 (0.81–0.95)
Model 1 + HBA b1c 1 0.81 (0.45–1.45) 0.70 (0.39–1.27) 0.47 (0.23–0.96) 0.030 0.91 (0.83–0.99)
Model 1 + hypertension statusb 1 0.77 (0.45–1.32) 0.63 (0.37–1.09) 0.38 (0.20–0.75) 0.001 0.87 (0.81–0.95)
Model 1 + HBA1c + hypertension status 1 0.81 (0.45–1.46) 0.70 (0.39–1.25) 0.47 (0.23–0.96) 0.026 0.91 (0.83–0.99)
  1. * p for trend calculated using season adjusted serum 25(OH)D as a continuous variable
  2. aModel 1: adjusted for race and duration of diabetes
  3. bHBA1c was entered as a continuous variable; hypertension status is defined as in Table 1