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Table 4 ORs (95 % CIs) for metabolic disease and metabolic factors by quartiles of serum vitamin D levels in women (n = 82,506)

From: High levels of serum vitamin D are associated with a decreased risk of metabolic diseases in both men and women, but an increased risk for coronary artery calcification in Korean men

Characteristics Quartiles of serum vitamin D levels p for trend
Q1 (<9.7 mg/dL) Q2 (9.7–12.8 mg/dL) Q3 (12.8–17.2 mg/dL) Q4 (≥17.2 mg/dL)
n = 20,691 n = 20,593 n = 20,604 n = 20,618
HTN
 Model 1 1.00 (reference) 0.92 (0.83–1.02) 0.92 (0.84–1.02) 0.85 (0.78–0.94) 0.002
 Model 2 1.00 (reference) 0.88 (0.78–1.01) 0.89 (0.78–1.01) 0.84 (0.74–0.95) 0.010
DM
 Model 1 1.00 (reference) 1.03 (0.88–1.21) 0.96 (0.82–1.12) 0.95 (0.82–1.11) 0.373
 Model 2 1.00 (reference) 1.12 (0.91–1.38) 0.94 (0.76–1.16) 0.92 (0.75–1.13) 0.198
CVD
 Model 1 1.00 (reference) 1.14 (0.88–1.47) 1.15 (0.89–1.47) 1.05 (0.83–1.34) 0.767
 Model 2 1.00 (reference) 1.31 (0.92–1.85) 1.14 (0.80–1.62) 1.13 (0.80–1.59) 0.756
FL
 Model 1 1.00 (reference) 0.95 (0.89–1.01) 0.93 (0.88–0.99) 0.74 (0.69–0.78) <0.001
 Model 2 1.00 (reference) 0.93 (0.86–1.00) 0.89 (0.83–0.96) 0.69 (0.64–0.75) <0.001
MS
 Model 1 1.00 (reference) 1.01 (0.93–1.10) 0.91 (0.83–0.99) 0.71 (0.65–0.78) <0.001
 Model 2 1.00 (reference) 0.97 (0.87–1.08) 0.84 (0.76–0.94) 0.65 (0.58–0.73) <0.001
Abdominal obesity
 Model 1 1.00 (reference) 1.04 (1.00–1.09) 1.01 (0.96–1.05) 0.85 (0.81–0.89) <0.001
 Model 2 1.00 (reference) 1.06 (1.01–1.12) 1.00 (0.95–1.06) 0.86 (0.81–0.91) <0.001
HOMA-IRa
 Model 1 1.00 (reference) 0.98 (0.94–1.03) 0.89 (0.85–0.94) 0.73 (0.69–0.77) <0.001
 Model 2 1.00 (reference) 0.97 (0.92–1.03) 0.90 (0.85–0.96) 0.74 (0.69–0.78) <0.001
hs-CRPb
 Model 1 1.00 (reference) 1.08 (1.03–1.14) 1.05 (1.00–1.10) 1.08 (1.03–1.14) 0.009
 Model 2 1.00 (reference) 1.09 (1.02–1.15) 1.03 (0.97–1.10) 1.11 (1.05–1.18) 0.005
  1. Differences were tested using multivariate-adjusted logistic regression analysis
  2. Model 1: adjustment for age, Model 2: adjustment for model 1 plus year of screening exam, center, smoking, alcohol, education, physical activity and season
  3. ORs odds ratios, CIs confidence intervals, HTN hypertension, FL fatty liver, MS metabolic syndrome, CVD cardiovascular disease, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, hs-CRP high sensitive C-reactive protein
  4. aHOMA-IR >75 percentile, b hs-CRP >1.0 mg/L