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Table 3 ORs (95 % CIs) for metabolic disease and metabolic factors by quartiles of serum vitamin D levels in men (n = 98,412)

From: High levels of serum vitamin D are associated with a decreased risk of metabolic diseases in both men and women, but an increased risk for coronary artery calcification in Korean men

Characteristics Quartiles of serum vitamin D levels p for trend
Q1 (< 12.9 mg/dL) Q2 (12.9–16.6 mg/dL) Q3 (16.7–21.4 mg/dL) Q4 (≥21.4 mg/dL)
n = 24,650 n = 24,612 n = 24,578 n = 24,572
HTN (%)
 Model 1 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (0.95–1.06) 1.08 (1.03–1.14) 1.09 (1.03–1.15) <0.001
 Model 2 1.00 (reference) 0.98 (0.92–1.04) 1.01 (0.96–1.07) 1.02 (0.96–1.08) 0.371
DM (%)
 Model 1 1.00 (reference) 1.03 (0.94–1.13) 1.06 (0.97–1.17) 0.96 (0.88–1.05) 0.447
 Model 2 1.00 (reference) 0.99 (0.89–1.10) 0.98 (0.88–1.09) 0.88 (0.79–0.98) 0.011
CVD (%)
 Model 1 1.00 (reference) 0.89 (0.74–1.07) 1.02 (0.86–1.21) 0.97 (0.82–1.14) 0.901
 Model 2 1.00 (reference) 0.90 (0.73–1.11) 0.99 (0.81–1.20) 0.94 (0.77–1.14) 0.742
FL (%)
 Model 1 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (0.97–1.04) 0.98 (0.95–1.02) 0.83 (0.80–0.86) <0.001
 Model 2 1.00 (reference) 0.97 (0.93–1.01) 0.92 (0.89–0.96) 0.77 (0.74–0.80) <0.001
MS (%)
 Model 1 1.00 (reference) 1.05 (0.99–1.10) 1.04 (0.99–1.09) 0.95 (0.90–1.00) 0.045
 Model 2 1.00 (reference) 0.99 (0.94–1.04) 0.92 (0.87–0.97) 0.81 (0.76–0.86) <0.001
Abdominal obesity (%)
 Model 1 1.00 (reference) 1.09 (1.05–1.13) 1.11 (1.07–1.16) 1.05 (1.01–1.09) 0.011
 Model 2 1.00 (reference) 1.07 (1.02–1.11) 1.04 (1.00–1.09) 0.96 (0.92–1.00) 0.031
HOMA-IR (%)a
 Model 1 1.00 (reference) 0.97 (0.93–1.01) 0.97 (0.94–1.01) 0.86 (0.83–0.90) <0.001
 Model 2 1.00 (reference) 0.97 (0.93–1.01) 0.96 (0.92–1.00) 0.84 (0.80–0.87) <0.001
hs-CRP (%)b
 Model 1 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (0.96–1.04) 1.01 (0.97–1.05) 0.99 (0.95–1.03) 0.859
 Model 2 1.00 (reference) 1.01 (0.96–1.05) 1.00 (0.96–1.04) 0.98 (0.93–1.02) 0.270
  1. Differences were tested using multivariate-adjusted logistic regression analysis
  2. Model 1: adjustment for age, Model 2: adjustment for model 1 plus year of screening exam, center, smoking, alcohol, education, physical activity and season
  3. ORs odds ratios, CIs confidence intervals, HTN hypertension, FL fatty liver, MS metabolic syndrome, CVD cardiovascular disease, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, hs-CRP high sensitive C-reactive protein
  4. aHOMA-IR >75 percentile, b hs-CRP > 1.0 mg/L