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Table 2 General characteristics by quartiles of serum vitamin D levels in women (n = 82,506)

From: High levels of serum vitamin D are associated with a decreased risk of metabolic diseases in both men and women, but an increased risk for coronary artery calcification in Korean men

Characteristics Total subjects Quartiles of serum vitamin D levels p for trend
Q1 (<9.7 mg/dL) Q2 (9.7–12.8 mg/dL) Q3 (12.8–17.2 mg/dL) Q4 (≥17.2 mg/dL)
n = 20,691 n = 20,593 n = 20,604 n = 20,618
Age (years) 38.5 (8.7) 37.8 (8.6) 37.9 (8.3) 38.3 (8.3) 40.0 (9.4) <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 21.7 (3.1) 21.7 (3.3) 21.8 (3.2) 21.7 (3.0) 21.6 (2.8) <0.001
Current smoker (%) 2.38 2.70 2.45 2.07 2.29 0.002
Alcohol intake (%)a 6.20 5.51 6.23 6.29 6.76 <0.001
Regular exercise (%)b 12.8 10.2 11.7 13.3 16.1 <0.001
Higher education (%)c 71.6 68.4 71.1 73.3 73.8 <0.001
SBP (mmHg) 100.0 (11.0) 100.1 (10.9) 100.0 (10.9) 99.8 (10.9) 100.0 (11.2) 0.357
DBP (mmHg) 64.4 (8.5) 64.3 (8.4) 64.5 (8.5) 64.3 (8.5) 64.5 (8.6) 0.053
Glucose (mg/dL) 91.4 (11.6) 91.4 (11.9) 91.4 (11.4) 91.2 (11.2) 91.5 (11.8) 0.754
Insulin (μU/mL)d 4.81 (3.29–6.84) 4.96 (3.42–7.06) 4.92 (3.38–7.02) 4.79 (3.27–6.84) 4.55 (3.13–6.43) <0.001
TC (mg/dL) 186.9 (32.6) 184.6 (32.1) 187.0 (32.8) 187.7 (32.5) 188.6 (32.8) <0.001
LDL-C (mg/dL) 109.3 (29.6) 107.9 (29.0) 109.5 (29.9) 109.9 (29.6) 110.1 (29.7) <0.001
HDL-C (mg/dL) 64.3 (14.5) 63.1 (14.2) 64.1 (14.5) 64.5 (14.6) 65.4 (14.8) <0.001
TG (mg/dL)d 70 (54–95) 69 (53–95) 70 (54–95) 70 (53.5–95) 70 (54–96) 0.061
hs-CRP (mg/L)d 0.3 (0.2–0.7) 0.3 (0.2–0.7) 0.3 (0.2–0.7) 0.3 (0.2–0.7) 0.3 (0.2–0.7) <0.001
Obesity (%) 13.0 13.7 13.7 13.1 11.3 <0.001
Abdominal obesity (%) 27.4 27.4 28.2 27.8 26.3 0.014
DM (%) 1.72 1.59 1.59 1.56 2.13 <0.001
HTN (%) 5.23 5.03 4.61 4.85 6.42 <0.001
FL (%) 11.8 12.3 11.8 11.8 11.1 0.001
MS (%) 5.6 5.8 5.8 5.4 5.2 0.001
CVD (%) 0.68 0.57 0.63 0.66 0.86 0.003
HOMA-IRd 1.08 (0.72–1.57) 1.11 (0.75–1.62) 1.10 (0.73–1.61) 1.07 (0.71–1.57) 1.02 (0.68–1.49) <0.001
  1. Data are expressed as mean (SD)
  2. BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, TC total cholesterol, HDL-C HDL cholesterol, TG triglyceride, hs-CRP high sensitive C-reactive protein, DM diabetes mellitus, HTN hypertension, FL fatty liver, MS metabolic syndrome, CVD cardiovascular disease, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance
  3. a≥20 g/day, b ≥3 times/week, c ≥college graduate, d data are expressed as median (IQR)