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Table 1 General characteristics by quartiles of serum vitamin D levels in men (n = 98,412)

From: High levels of serum vitamin D are associated with a decreased risk of metabolic diseases in both men and women, but an increased risk for coronary artery calcification in Korean men

Characteristics Total subjects Quartiles of serum vitamin D levels p for trend
Q1 (<12.9 mg/dL) Q2 (12.9–16.6 mg/dL) Q3 (16.7–21.4 mg/dL) Q4 (≥21.4 mg/dL)
n = 24,650 n = 24,612 n = 24,578 n = 24,572
Age (years) 39.8 (8.1) 37.9 (7.6) 39.0 (7.7) 40.0 (7.7) 42.1 (8.8) <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 24.5 (3.0) 24.3 (3.2) 24.5 (3.0) 24.6 (2.9) 24.5 (2.9) <0.001
Current smoker (%) 36.0 32.4 34.5 36.9 40.2 <0.001
Alcohol intake (%)a 33.2 26.0 30.8 35.7 40.4 <0.001
Regular exercise (%)b 14.4 11.3 13.3 14.9 18.0 <0.001
Higher education (%)c 85.5 86.8 87.2 85.9 82.2 <0.001
SBP (mmHg) 112.8 (11.3) 112.2 (11.1) 112.6 (11.2) 112.9 (11.2) 113.3 (11.4) <0.001
DBP (mmHg) 73.7 (9.4) 73.1 (9.3) 73.5 (9.4) 73.9 (9.4) 74.2 (9.4) <0.001
Glucose (mg/dL) 97.2 (15.1) 96.5 (15.1) 97.0 (15.0) 97.5 (15.6) 97.9 (14.7) <0.001
Insulin (μU/mL)d 5.75 (3.86–8.37) 5.92 (3.97–8.63) 5.82 (3.91–8.44) 5.77 (3.88–8.39) 5.47 (3.71–8.0) <0.001
TC (mg/dL) 199.2 (34.2) 196.3 (34.3) 199.3 (34.1) 201.0 (34.3) 200.3 (34.1) <0.001
LDL-C (mg/dL) 126.9 (31.1) 124.5 (31.0) 127.1 (30.8) 128.6 (31.3) 127.5 (31.2) <0.001
HDL-C (mg/dL) 52.2 (12.5) 51.5 (12.4) 51.9 (12.2) 52.4 (12.5) 53.1 (12.8) <0.001
TG (mg/dL)d 114 (80–163) 112 (79–162) 113 (81–164) 115 (82–165) 114 (81–162) 0.070
hs-CRP (mg/L)d 0.5 (0.3–1.1) 0.5 (0.3–1.1) 0.5 (0.3–1.1) 0.5 (0.3–1.1) 0.5 (0.3–1.1) 0.013
Obesity (%) 39.4 36.2 39.9 41.3 40.4 <0.001
Abdominal obesity (%) 30.2 28.9 30.8 31.3 30.1 0.001
DM (%) 4.59 3.81 4.25 4.78 5.54 <0.001
HTN (%) 14.8 12.7 13.5 15.3 17.7 <0.001
FL (%) 42.0 42.4 42.9 42.9 39.8 <0.001
MS (%) 15.3 14.5 15.4 15.7 15.5 0.001
CVD (%) 1.19 1.00 0.98 1.21 1.56 <0.001
HOMA-IRd 1.36 (0.90–2.03) 1.40 (0.91–2.07) 1.38 (0.90–2.05) 1.37 (0.90–2.05) 1.31 (0.86–1.97) <0.001
  1. Data are expressed as mean (SD)
  2. BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, TC total cholesterol, HDL-C HDL cholesterol, TG triglyceride, hs-CRP high sensitive C-reactive protein, DM diabetes mellitus, HTN hypertension, FL fatty liver, MS metabolic syndrome, CVD cardiovascular disease, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance
  3. a≥20 g/day, b ≥ 3 times/week, c ≥college graduate, d data are expressed as median (IQR)