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Table 3 Odds ratios (95 % confidence intervals) for high baPWV, carotid atherosclerosis, and carotid stenosis according to quartiles of GGT

From: Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase is not associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes

High baPWVa Carotid atherosclerosisb Carotid stenosisc
OR (95 % CI) P OR (95 % CI) P OR (95 % CI) P
Non-adjusted
Per GGT (U) 1.01 (0.99–1.01) 0.718 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 0.824 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 0.581
Q1 1   1   1  
Q2 1.24 (0.85–1.81) 0.258 0.84 (0.59–1.18) 0.316 1.12 (0.65–1.93) 0.687
Q3 1.10 (0.75–1.62) 0.634 1.00 (0.71–1.42) 0.983 1.34 (0.78–2.30) 0.285
Q4 1.13 (0.75–1.69) 0.565 0.97 (0.69–1.38) 0.874 1.03 (0.59–1.81) 0.915
Age and sex-adjusted
Per GGT (U) 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 0.980 1.00 (0.995–1.01) 0.584 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 0.793
Q1 1   1   1  
Q2 1.11 (0.71–1.71) 0.652 0.77 (0.53–1.13) 0.178 1.12 (0.64–1.98) 0.689
Q3 0.78 (0.49–1.26) 0.314 1.03 (0.70–1.52) 0.871 1.51 (0.85–2.67) 0.161
Q4 1.03 (0.65–1.64) 0.899 0.99 (0.67–1.47) 0.962 1.14 (0.63–2.08) 0.666
Multivariate-adjusted
Per GGT (U) 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 0.988 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 0.911 1.00 (0.98–1.01) 0.394
Q1 1   1   1  
Q2 1.29 (0.80–2.08) 0.304 0.78 (0.53–1.16) 0.222 1.10 (0.62–1.97) 0.747
Q3 0.89 (0.53–1.52) 0.679 1.01 (0.67–1.53) 0.956 1.52 (0.78–2.58) 0.252
Q4 1.07 (0.63–1.82) 0.801 0.91 (0.60–1.39) 0.674 0.97 (0.51–1.84) 0.927
  1. The multivariate model was adjusted for age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, use of statin, diabetic duration, HbA1c, eGFR, elevated blood pressure, increased waist circumference, high triglyceride levels, and low HDL-C
  2. baPWV brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity
  3. aDefined as the highest quartile of values among the subjects (≥1720 cm/s)
  4. bDefined as cIMT > 0.8 mm or the presence of plaques
  5. cDefined as 50 % or greater of luminal narrowing (plaque score ≥2)