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Table 1 Characteristics of the study subjects

From: Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase is not associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes

  GGT (U/L) P
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
≤16 17–23 24–37 ≥38
n 257 267 250 250  
Age (years) 58.6 ± 10.1 57.5 ± 10.0 55.6 ± 9.5 55.1 ± 10.0 <0.001
Male gender (%) 59 (23.0) 109 (40.8) 125 (50.0) 139 (55.6) <0.001
Current smokers (%) 25 (9.7) 37 (13.9) 47 (18.8) 49 (19.6) 0.006
Alcohol (%) 47 (18.3) 87 (32.6) 112 (44.8) 122 (48.8) <0.001
Duration (years) 9.4 (8.5–10.3) 8.1 (7.2–9.0) 6.7 (5.8–7.6) 6.0 (5.1–6.9) <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 23.9 ± 3.1 24.7 ± 3.4 25.6 ± 3.6 26.1 ± 3.6 <0.001
WC (cm) 83.5 ± 9.1 86.1 ± 8.8 88.7 ± 8.8 90.7 ± 9.6 <0.001
FPG (mg/dL) 146.3 ± 62.3 148.9 ± 56.6 161.5 ± 70.0 172.1 ± 68.9 <0.001
HbA1c (%) 7.9 ± 2.1 8.0 ± 2.2 8.1 ± 2.2 8.2 ± 2.0 0.345
HOMA-IRa 3.9 (2.6–5.2) 2.8 (1.6–4.1) 3.8 (2.6–5.1) 4.4 (3.2–5.6) 0.353
TC (mg/dL) 169.4 ± 44.6 173.1 ± 40.8 177.7 ± 43.7 185.6 ± 48.6 <0.001
TG (mg/dL) 127.1 (114.6–139.7) 148.8 (136.3–161.2) 170.3 (157.2–183.5) 199.0 (185.9–212.0) <0.001
HDL-C (mg/dL) 48.1 ± 11.4 46.6 ± 12.1 46.0 ± 11.9 45.6 ± 11.5 0.111
LDL-C (mg/dL) 106.5 ± 33.4 105.2 ± 34.5 110.8 ± 32.7 117.3 ± 37.6 <0.001
Uric acid (mg/dL) 4.8 ± 1.3 4.9 ± 1.4 5.2 ± 1.5 5.3 ± 1.5 0.007
AST (U/L) 20.6 ± 5.7 22.6 ± 7.4 25.3 ± 9.6 31.1 ± 13.5 <0.001
ALT (U/L) 17.8 ± 8.0 22.9 ± 12.2 28.2 ± 14.3 36.3 ± 18.5 <0.001
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 101.8 ± 32.4 99.0 ± 28.2 101.2 ± 27.4 106.9 ± 29.5 0.021
SBP (mmHg) 129.6 ± 19.3 129.4 ± 17.0 129.1 ± 16.8 132.4 ± 16.9 0.264
DBP (mmHg) 76.5 ± 10.5 77.7 ± 10.1 78.7 ± 9.4 80.3 ± 10.3 <0.001
Usage of medication (%)
Insulin 72 (28.0) 59 (22.1) 53 (21.2) 38 (17.1) 0.006
Anti-platelet agent 101 (39.3) 100 (37.5) 83 (33.2) 80 (32.0) 0.264
CCB 53 (20.6) 59 (22.1) 59 (23.6) 46 (18.4) 0.529
ACEI/ARB 93 (36.2) 84 (61.5) 95 (38.0) 85 (34.0) 0.436
Beta blocker 23 (9.0) 19 (7.1) 22 (8.8) 20 (8.0) 0.864
Statin 92 (35.8) 104 (39.0) 117 (46.8) 89 (35.6) 0.034
baPWV (cm/s) 1583 ± 338 1578 ± 329 1518 ± 322 1556 ± 323 0.102
IMT (mm) 0.65 ± 0.14 0.65 ± 0.14 0.67 ± 0.15 0.66 ± 0.14 0.663
Carotid plaque (%) 0.984
Grade 0 161 (62.7) 168 (62.9) 156 (62.4) 150 (60.0)  
Grade 1 23 (9.0) 22 (8.2) 16 (6.4) 22 (8.8)
Grade 2 46 (17.9) 46 (17.2) 44 (17.6) 51 (20.4)
Grade 3 25 (9.7) 29 (10.9) 32 (12.8) 26 (10.4)
Grade 4 2 (0.8) 2 (0.8) 2 (0.8) 1 (0.4)
  1. Data are means ± SD or numbers (percentage)
  2. BMI body mass index, WC waist circumference, FPG fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, TC total cholesterol, TG triglyceride, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine transferase, ALP alkaline phosphatase, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, CCB calcium channel blocker, ACEI/ARB angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/ angiotensin II receptor blocker, CVD cardiovascular disease, FRS Framingham Risk Score, baPWV brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, IMT intima-media thickness
  3. aN = 505