Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Hormone levels, and weight, after the Palaeolithic diet and diabetes diet

From: Palaeolithic diet decreases fasting plasma leptin concentrations more than a diabetes diet in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised cross-over trial

Outcome Palaeolithic diet Diabetes diet Delta diets p a
Adiponectin (µg/ml) 5.2 ± 4.4 (2.5 to 7.9) 5.7 ± 5.4 (2.5 to 9.1) −0.5 ± 1.2 (−1.3 to 0.2) 0.153
Adipsin (ng/ml) 787 ± 182 (677 to 896) 776 ± 153 (684 to 869) 10 ± 79 (−37 to 58) 0.650
C-peptide (pg/ml) 455 ± 224 (319 to 590) 412 ± 204 (289 to 535) 43 ± 262 (−116 to 201) 0.644
Ghrelin (pg/ml) 540 ± 97 (481 to 598) 566 ± 145 (478 to 654) −26 ± 74 (−70 to 18) 0.226
GIP (pg/ml) 254 ± 266 (93 to 415) 186 ± 75 (141 to 232) 68 ± 264 (−92 to 227) 0.600b
GLP-1 (pg/ml) 27 ± 9.3 (22 to 33) 27 ± 3.7 (25 to 29) 0.4 ± 7.7 (−4.3 to 5.12) 0.235b
Glucagon (pg/ml) 409 ± 40 (385 to 433) 431 ± 51 (400 to 463) −22 ± 43 (−48 to 3.9) 0.089
Insulin (pg/ml) 248 ± 138 (165 to 332) 336 ± 327 (138 to 533) −87 ± 240 (−232 to 58) 0.266
Insulinc (pg/ml) 401 ± 174 (296 to 506) 391 ± 115 (322 to 461) 9.8 ± 172 (−94 to 114) 0.840
Leptin (ng/ml) 5.1 ± 4.9 (2.1 to 8.0) 7.4 ± 8.3 (2.4 to 12) −2.3 ± 4.6 (−5.1 to 0.4) 0.023 b
Resistin (ng/ml) 2.5 ± 0.9 (1.9 to 3.0) 2.3 ± 0.6 (2.0 to 2.7) 0.2 ± 0.6 (−0.2 to 0.5) 0.356
Visfatin (ng/ml) 2.4 ± 0.7 (2.0 to 2.9) 2.5 ± 0.6 (2.1 to 2.8) −0.1 ± 0.5 (−0.3 to 0.3) 0.906
Weight (kg) 81 ± 13 (74 to 88) 84 ± 15 (76 to 92) −3.3 ± 3.8 (−5.7 to −1.0) 0.008
  1. Data are mean ± standard deviation (95 % CI)
  2. Significance tests are paired t test for normally distributed data and Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank sum test for non-normally distributed data
  3. Significant p values are indicated by italics font
  4. GIP glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, GLP-1 glucagon-like peptide-1
  5. a p for difference between diets
  6. bData non-normally distributed (Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank sum test)
  7. cOld insulin values previously published