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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Palaeolithic diet decreases fasting plasma leptin concentrations more than a diabetes diet in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised cross-over trial

  All Diabetes first (6/13) Palaeolithic first (7/13)
Sex male/female (n) 10/3 4/2 6/1
Age (years) 64 (6) 63 (6) 66 (6)
Height (cm) 171 (5) 170 (6) 172 (4)
Weight (kg) 87 (17) 92 (20) 82 (13)
BMI (kg/m2) 30 (7) 32 (8) 28 (4)
Waist circumference (cm) 103 (14) 109 (17) 97 (9)
Diabetes duration (years) 8 (5) 11 (6) 6 (4)
Diabetic values at OGTT yes/no (n) 12/1 6/0 6/1
Lipid lowering drug (=statin) yes/no (n) 8/5 4/2 4/3
Drugs per day 4.3 (2.3) 3.7 (1.8) 4.9 (2.7)
Antihypertensive drugs per day 1.5 (1.5) 1.2 (1.2) 1.9 (1.7)
 Beta-blocker yes/no (n)
 4/9 1/5 3/4
 Thiazide yes/no (n)
 4/9 1/5 3/4
 ACE inhibitor yes/no (n)
 5/8 2/4 3/4
 Angiotensin-II receptor blocker yes/no (n) 4/9 2/4 2/5
 Calcium channel blocker yes/no (n) 3/10 1/5 2/5
Anti-diabetic drugs per day 1.2 (0.9) 1.5 (0.8) 0.9 (0.9)
 Metformin yes/no (n) 9/4 5/1 4/3
 Dosage, mg/day 1031 (864) 1283 (950) 814 (790)
 Sulphonylurea yes/no (n) 3/10 2/4 1/6
 Thiazolidinedione yes/no (n) 3/10 2/4 1/6
Plasma adiponectin (µg/ml) 4.8 (4.16) 4.8 (2.5) 4.9 (5.4)
Plasma adipsin (ng/ml) 797 (157) 804 (218) 792 (178)
Plasma C-peptide (pg/ml) 487 (275) 437 (276) 531 (289)
Plasma ghrelin (pg/ml) 568 (129) 613 (165) 530 (82)
Plasma GIP (pg/ml) 232 (91.6) 226 (83) 237 (105)
Plasma GLP-1 (pg/ml) 26.8 (3.39) 26.4 (4.5) 27.1 (2.4)
Plasma glucagon (pg/ml) 425 (44.34) 435 (52.4) 417 (38.4)
Plasma leptin (ng/ml) 9.84 (12.18) 12.1 (17) 7.9 (6.8)
Plasma resistin (ng/ml) 2.21 (0.39) 2.3 (0.4) 2.1 (0.4)
Plasma visfatin (ng/ml) 2.52 (0.75) 2.7 (0.5) 2.4 (0.7)
  1. Data is presented as mean values with SD in brackets, unless stated
  2. ACE angiotensin converting enzyme, GIP glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, GLP-1 glucagon-like peptide-1