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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors by study groups and sex (age-adjusted rates, individuals >35 years)

From: The prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and obesity among immigrants from East Africa and the former Soviet Union: a retrospective comparative 30-year cohort study

  Native-born Israelis (N = 17,626) Ethiopian African immigrants (N = 20,768) Former Soviet Union immigrants (N = 20,507) P value
Age (years, mean ± SD)
 All 50 ± 11 55 ± 16 55 ± 17 <0.001a
 Males 49 ± 11 55 ± 16 56 ± 16 <0.001a
 Female 49 ± 11 55 ± 15 55 ± 15 <0.001a
Time since immigration (years, mean ± SD)
 All NA 19 ± 6 19 ± 6 0.414b
 Males NA 19 ± 7 19 ± 7 0.054b
 Female NA 19 ± 6 19 ± 6 0.433b
Age at immigration (years, mean ± SD)
 All NA 36 ± 17 35 ± 16 0.066b
 Males NA 36 ± 18 35 ± 17 0.001b
 Female NA 35 ± 16 35 ± 16 0.381b
Diabetes (%)
 All 13.4 17.4 14.1 <0.001a,b
 Males 14.7 16.8 13.4 <0.001a,b
 Female 11.3 17.9 14.6 <0.001c
Hypertension (%)
 All 17.5 18.6 26.8 <0.001c
 Males 20.1 18.1 26.9 <0.001c
 Female 15.2 19.1 26.5 <0.001c
Obesity (%)
 All 25.6 12.9 28.6 <0.001c
 Males 24.6 5.1 23.9 <0.001a,b
 Female 26.6 20.0 32.9 <0.001c
Dyslipidemia (%)
 All 55.8 49.9 50.6 <0.001c
 Males 56.7 48.6 51.2 <0.001c
 Female 54.9 51.6 50.0 <0.001c
Smoking (%)
 All 30.1 7.4 31.8 <0.001c
 Males 35.8 13.1 44.1 <0.001c
 Female 24.8 2.1 20.5 <0.001c
Total cholesterol (mg/dL, mean ± SD)
 All 190 ± 40 187 ± 45 192 ± 45 <0.001c
 Males 184 ± 41 188 ± 48 185 ± 46 <0.001a
 Female 194 ± 39 186 ± 42 197 ± 44 <0.001c
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL, mean ± SD)
 All 112 ± 35 111 ± 38 113 ± 40 <0.001b
 Males 111 ± 36 113 ± 40 111 ± 40 0.163
 Female 113 ± 34 110 ± 36 115 ± 39 <0.001c
Triglycerides (mg/dL, mean ± SD)
 All 138 ± 80 146 ± 100 139 ± 93 <0.001a,b
 Males 155 ± 94 160 ± 126 148 ± 109 <0.001b
 Female 124 ± 63 134 ± 74 131 ± 77 <0.001a
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL, mean ± SD)
 All 50 ± 14 48 ± 12 51 ± 14 <0.001c
 Males 43 ± 10 47 ± 12 45 ± 12 <0.001c
 Female 55 ± 14 49 ± 12 55 ± 13 <0.001a,b
HDL cholesterol/LDL cholesterol ratio
 All 0.43 ± 0.16 0.45 ± 0.18 0.43 ± 0.19 <0.001a,b
 Males 0.37 ± 0.13 0.44 ± 0.18 0.39 ± 0.72 <0.001c
 Female 0.48 ± 0.17 0.47 ± 0.17 0.47 ± 0.19 <0.001a
BMI (kg/height2, mean ± SD)
 All 26.5 ± 4.9 24.6 ± 3.9 27.7 ± 5.4 <0.001c
 Males 26.9 ± 5.4 23.8 ± 3.1 27.2 ± 4.5 <0.001c
 Female 26.1 ± 5.4 25.4 ± 4.3 28.2 ± 5.9 <0.001c
Glucose lowering medication use(months, median and range)d
 All 6 (1–12) 5 (1–12) 6 (1–12) <0.001a,b
Lipoprotein lowering medication use (months, median and range)d
 All 5 (1–11) 4 (1–10) 5 (1–11) <0.001a,b
  1. SD standard deviation, NA non applicable
  2. aEthiopian African immigrants vs native-born Israelis
  3. bEthiopian African immigrants vs Former Soviet Union immigrants
  4. cAcross all study group
  5. dNumber months of medication use within a period of 12 months during the year 2012