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Table 5 Distribution of anthropometric and biological variables according to birth weight, men, multivariate adjusted

From: Low birth weight leads to obesity, diabetes and increased leptin levels in adults: the CoLaus study

  Birth weight categories (kg) p value Linear Quadratic
−2.5] (n = 73) ]2.5–3.5] (n = 556) ]3.5–4.0] (n = 266) ]4.0+ (n = 193)
Anthropometrya
 Height (cm) 175 ± 1 176 ± 1 178 ± 1 179 ± 1 <0.001 <0.001 0.306
 Weight (kg) 80.6 ± 1.5 80.0 ± 0.5 84.6 ± 0.8 86.9 ± 0.9 <0.001 <0.001 0.147
 BMI (kg/m2) 26.2 ± 0.4 26.0 ± 0.2 26.8 ± 0.2 27.1 ± 0.3 <0.001 0.024 0.328
 Waist circumference (cm) 94.8 ± 1.2 93.7 ± 0.4 96.1 ± 0.6 97.3 ± 0.8 <0.001 0.022 0.168
 Fat (% of body weight) 23.7 ± 0.6 22.4 ± 0.2 23.3 ± 0.3 23.4 ± 0.4 0.018 0.946 0.075
 Fat mass (kg) 19.4 ± 0.8 18.3 ± 0.3 20.2 ± 0.4 20.9 ± 0.5 <0.001 0.035 0.117
 Normal weight 0.75 (0.45–1.26) 1 (ref.) 0.71 (0.52–0.96) 0.47 (0.33–0.68) 0.055 0.043
 Abdominal obesity 0.90 (0.48–1.70) 1 (ref.) 1.27 (0.89–1.82) 1.72 (1.17–2.53) 0.039 0.610
Adipokines
 Leptin (ng/dL)a 10.0 ± 1.0 8.6 ± 0.3 8.2 ± 0.5 8.7 ± 0.6 0.649§ 0.544§ 0.209§
 Leptin (ng/dL)b 10.1 ± 0.8 9.0 ± 0.3 8.0 ± 0.4 7.9 ± 0.5 0.088§ 0.039§ 0.534§
 Leptin (ng/dL)c 10.1 ± 0.8 9.0 ± 0.3 8.0 ± 0.4 7.8 ± 0.5 0.055§ 0.031§ 0.721§
 Leptin (ng/dL)d 9.8 ± 0.8 9.1 ± 0.3 7.8 ± 0.4 7.7 ± 0.5 0.016§ 0.020§ 0.625§
 Leptin/fat mass ratiob 0.46 ± 0.05 0.45 ± 0.02 0.39 ± 0.02 0.38 ± 0.03 0.041 0.078 0.942
 Adiponectin (µg/dL)a 8.1 ± 0.7 7.2 ± 0.2 7.1 ± 0.4 7.3 ± 0.4 0.875§ 0.875§ 0.745§
 Adiponectin (µg/dL)b 8.1 ± 0.7 7.1 ± 0.2 7.1 ± 0.4 7.4 ± 0.4 0.906§ 0.827§ 0.639§
 Adiponectin (µg/dL)c 8.1 ± 0.7 7.1 ± 0.2 7.1 ± 0.4 7.5 ± 0.4 0.880§ 0.820§ 0.592§
 Adiponectin (µg/dL)d 8.1 ± 0.7 7.1 ± 0.2 7.2 ± 0.4 7.4 ± 0.4 0.898§ 0.838§ 0.577§
Markers of glucose homeostasis
 Fasting Glucose (mmol/L)b, e 5.64 ± 0.11 5.65 ± 0.04 5.68 ± 0.06 5.62 ± 0.07 0.927 0.930 0.673
 Fasting Insulin (μU/mL)b, e 9.5 ± 0.8 9.8 ± 0.3 8.8 ± 0.4 9.1 ± 0.5 0.199 0.434 0.894
 HOMAb, e 2.50 ± 0.25 2.55 ± 0.09 2.36 ± 0.13 2.39 ± 0.15 0.634 0.571 0.946
 Diabetesb 2.31 (0.96–5.60) 1 (ref.) 0.86 (0.44–1.68) 0.75 (0.36–1.59) 0.029 0.257
 Diabetesc 2.23 (0.92–5.41) 1 (ref.) 0.88 (0.45–1.72) 0.72 (0.34–1.52) 0.030 0.337
 Diabetesd 2.19 (0.90–5.33) 1 (ref.) 0.87 (0.44–1.71) 0.71 (0.33–1.53) 0.032 0.352
 High HOMAb 0.84 (0.44–1.60) 1 (ref.) 0.77 (0.52–1.13) 0.67 (0.44–1.03) 0.407 0.451
 Metabolic syndromea 0.96 (0.52–1.76) 1 (ref.) 1.05 (0.73–1.50) 1.49 (1.02–2.17) 0.185 0.410
  1. Results are expressed as adjusted mean ± standard error or as odds ratio and (95 % confidence interval). Normal weight was defined as a body mass index <25 kg/m2; abdominal obesity was defined as a waist circumference ≥88 cm for women and ≥102 cm in men. Statistical analysis conducted using analysis of variance for continuous variables and logistic regression for categorical variables. Statistically significant odds ratios are indicated in italics. Column p value corresponds to the p value of the overall association test; column linear trend corresponds to the p value for testing a linear trend. Adjusted for: a age, smoking status and physical activity; b age, smoking status, physical activity and BMI; c age, smoking status, physical activity and waist circumference; d age, smoking status, physical activity and fat mass. Also adjusted for e antidiabetic drug treatment
  2. §Statistical analysis performed on log-transformed data