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Table 4 Distribution of anthropometric and biological variables according to birth weight, women, multivariate adjusted

From: Low birth weight leads to obesity, diabetes and increased leptin levels in adults: the CoLaus study

  Birth weight categories (kg) p value Linear Quadratic
−2.5] (n = 174) ]2.5–3.5] (n = 891) ]3.5–4.0] (n = 264) ]4.0+ (n = 129)
Anthropometrya
 Height (cm) 161 ± 1 164 ± 1 165 ± 1 166 ± 1 <0.001 <0.001 0.069
 Weight (kg) 64.5 ± 1 64.7 ± 0.4 69.2 ± 0.8 69.8 ± 1.1 <0.001 <0.001 0.797
 BMI (kg/m2) 24.8 ± 0.4 24.1 ± 0.2 25.4 ± 0.3 25.4 ± 0.4 <0.001 0.086 0.285
 Waist circumference (cm) 83.1 ± 0.9 81.0.0 ± 0.4 83.5 ± 0.7 83.9 ± 1.1 0.002 0.259 0.125
 Fat (% of body weight) 33.8 ± 0.6 32.5 ± 0.2 33.6 ± 0.5 33.2 ± 0.6 0.061 0.861 0.421
 Fat mass (kg) 22.4 ± 0.7 21.6 ± 0.3 24.1 ± 0.6 23.8 ± 0.8 <0.001 0.033 0.692
 Normal weight 0.70 (0.50–0.98) 1 (ref.) 0.66 (0.50–0.88) 0.59 (0.40–0.86)   0.197 0.089
 Abdominal obesity 1.35 (0.94–1.94) 1 (ref.) 1.40 (1.03–1.90) 1.67 (1.12–2.49) 0.206 0.106
Adipokines
 Leptin (ng/dL)a 17.8 ± 0.9 15.5 ± 0.4 16.9 ± 0.7 16.0 ± 1.1 0.357§ 0.337§ 0.522§
 Leptin (ng/dL)b 16.9 ± 0.6 16.3 ± 0.3 15.8 ± 0.5 13.8 ± 0.8 0.008§ 0.004§ 0.241§
 Leptin (ng/dL)c 16.7 ± 0.7 16.1 ± 0.3 16.1 ± 0.6 14.4 ± 0.8 0.147§ 0.050§ 0.341§
 Leptin (ng/dL)d 17.3 ± 0.7 16.2 ± 0.3 15.6 ± 0.5 14.0 ± 0.8 0.012§ 0.003§ 0.541§
 Leptin/fat mass ratiob 0.77 ± 0.04 0.73 ± 0.02 0.69 ± 0.03 0.62 ± 0.04 0.029 0.004 0.655
 Adiponectin (µg/dL)a 11.6 ± 0.7 12.3 ± 0.3 11.9 ± 0.5 12.2 ± 0.8 0.560§ 0.244 0.867
 Adiponectin (µg/dL)b 11.8 ± 0.7 12.1 ± 0.3 12.2 ± 0.5 12.5 ± 0.8 0.433§ 0.105§ 0.796§
 Adiponectin (µg/dL)c 11.9 ± 0.7 12.1 ± 0.3 12.2 ± 0.5 12.5 ± 0.8 0.594§ 0.150§ 0.800§
 Adiponectin (µg/dL)d 11.7 ± 0.6 12.1 ± 0.3 12.2 ± 0.5 12.5 ± 0.8 0.406§ 0.090§ 0.970§
Markers of glucose homeostasis
 Fasting Glucose (mmol/L)b, e 5.37 ± 0.05 5.28 ± 0.02 5.26 ± 0.04 5.18 ± 0.06 0.115 0.016 0.903
 Fasting Insulin (μU/mL)b, e 8.2 ± 0.4 7.5 ± 0.2 8.0 ± 0.3 6.5 ± 0.4 0.012 0.008 0.194
 HOMAb, e 1.99 ± 0.1 1.83 ± 0.04 1.95 ± 0.08 1.50 ± 0.12 0.006 0.004 0.106
 Diabetesb 2.43 (1.02–5.79) 1 (ref.) 0.75 (0.27–2.12) 1.40 (0.50–3.98) 0.285 0.053
 Diabetesc 2.38 (0.97–5.84) 1 (ref.) 0.89 (0.32–2.48) 1.86 (0.65–5.29) 0.634 0.042
 Diabetesd 2.70 (1.13–6.45) 1 (ref.) 0.71 (0.25–2.03) 1.17 (0.38–3.55) 0.134 0.067
 High HOMAb 1.32 (0.83–2.12) 1 (ref.) 0.81 (0.51–1.28) 0.63 (0.33–1.19) 0.031 0.947
 Metabolic syndromea 1.75 (1.15–2.68) 1 (ref.) 1.12 (0.74–1.69) 1.05 (0.62–1.79) 0.140 0.195
  1. Results are expressed as adjusted mean ± standard error or as odds ratio and (95 % confidence interval). Normal weight was defined as a body mass index <25 kg/m2; abdominal obesity was defined as a waist circumference ≥88 cm for women and ≥102 cm in men. Statistical analysis conducted using analysis of variance for continuous variables and logistic regression for categorical variables. Statistically significant odds ratios are indicated in italics. Column p value corresponds to the p value of the overall association test; column linear trend corresponds to the p value for testing a linear trend. Adjusted for: a age, smoking status and physical activity; b age, smoking status, physical activity and BMI; c age, smoking status, physical activity and waist circumference; d age, smoking status, physical activity and fat mass. Also adjusted for e antidiabetic drug treatment
  2. §Statistical analysis performed on log-transformed data