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Table 3 Distribution of anthropometric and biological variables according to birth weight, men, unadjusted

From: Low birth weight leads to obesity, diabetes and increased leptin levels in adults: the CoLaus study

  Birth weight categories (kg) p value
−2.5] (n = 73) ]2.5–3.5] (n = 556) ]3.5–4.0] (n = 266) ]4.0+ (n = 193)
Anthropometry
 Height (cm) 175 ± 1a, c 175 ± 1a 178 ± 1b, c 179 ± 1b <0.001
 Weight (kg) 80.8 ± 1.5a, c 80.0 ± 0.6a 84.5 ± 0.8b, c 87.0 ± 0.9b <0.001
 BMI (kg/m2) 26.3 ± 0.5a 26.0 ± 0.2a 26.8 ± 0.2b 27.2 ± 0.3b <0.001
 Waist circumference (cm) 94.8 ± 1.3a, b 93.8 ± 0.5b 95.9 ± 0.7a, b 97.4 ± 0.8a <0.001
 Fat (% of body weight) 23.5 ± 0.7 22.5 ± 0.3 23.2 ± 0.4 23.6 ± 0.4 0.089
 Fat mass (kg) 19.3 ± 0.9a, b 18.4 ± 0.3b 20.1 ± 0.5a, b 21.0 ± 0.5a <0.001
BMI categories (%)      0.004
 Normal 28 (38.4) 248 (44.6) 99 (37.2) 54 (28.0)  
 Overweight 33 (45.2) 236 (42.5) 120 (45.1) 102 (52.9)  
 Obesity 12 (16.4) 72 (13.0) 47 (17.7) 37 (19.2)  
Abdominal obesity (%) 15 (20.6) 124 (22.3) 68 (25.6) 62 (32.1) 0.043
Adipokines
 Leptin (ng/dL) 10.0 ± 1.0 8.6 ± 0.4 8.2 ± 0.5 8.7 ± 0.6 0.635§
 Leptin/fat mass ratio 0.46 ± 0.05 0.45 ± 0.02 0.39 ± 0.02 0.38 ± 0.03 0.097
 Adiponectin (μg/dL) 8.1 ± 0.7 7.2 ± 0.2 7.1 ± 0.4 7.3 ± 0.4 0.848§
Markers of glucose homeostasis
 Fasting glucose (mmol/L) 5.80 ± 0.14 5.64 ± 0.05 5.67 ± 0.07 5.60 ± 0.08 0.655
 Fasting insulin (μU/mL) 10.0 ± 0.9 9.5 ± 0.3 9.0 ± 0.5 9.5 ± 0.5 0.745
 HOMA 2.79 ± 0.3 2.45 ± 0.11 2.42 ± 0.15 2.50 ± 0.18 0.712
 Diabetes (%) 9 (12.3) 33 (5.9) 17 (6.4) 11 (5.7) 0.202
 High HOMA (%) 18 (29.5) 139 (29.8) 63 (27.9) 46 (27.7) 0.938
 Metabolic syndrome (%) 17 (23.3) 134 (24.1) 64 (24.1) 61 (31.6) 0.183
  1. Results are expressed as number of people and (column percentage) or as average ± standard deviation. Normal weight was defined as a body mass index <25 kg/m2; abdominal obesity was defined as a waist circumference ≥88 cm for women and ≥102 cm in men. Statistical analysis by Chi square for categorical variables and by ANOVA for continuous variables. For continuous variables, post hoc pairwise comparisons using the method of Scheffe were performed when the results of the ANOVA were statistically significant; results with a different subscript are significantly different at p < 0.05 (corrected for multiple comparisons)
  2. §Statistical analysis performed on log-transformed data