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Table 3 The control of 3B(s) in male or female patients shown by education and income levels

From: Association between socioeconomic status and metabolic control and diabetes complications: a cross-sectional nationwide study in Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Variables All patients Education Household net incomea
Illiteracy Primary education Secondary education College and above p <2000 2000–5000 ≥5000 p
Male, n 11,955 277 1836 5738 4104   3941 5796 1804  
SBP (mmHg), mean ± SD 132.5 ± 15.48 136.3 ± 16.23 134.4 ± 15.87 132.6 ± 15.90 131.2 ± 14.51 <0.001 133.5 ± 16.15 132.0 ± 15.10 131.2 ± 14.57 <0.001
DBP (mmHg), mean ± SD 79.4 ± 9.03 79.2 ± 9.30 78.6 ± 9.37 79.7 ± 9.08 79.5 ± 8.75 <0.001 79.7 ± 9.21 79.3 ± 8.92 78.9 ± 8.70 <0.001
HbA1c (%), mean ± SD 7.7 ± 2.07 7.6 ± 2.16 7.8 ± 2.20 7.8 ± 2.10 7.7 ± 1.97 0.169 7.7 ± 2.09 7.7 ± 2.07 7.8 ± 2.07 0.015
FBG (mmol/L), mean ± SD 8.5 ± 3.45 8.4 ± 4.25 8.6 ± 3.81 8.6 ± 3.42 8.3 ± 3.26 0.009 8.6 ± 3.50 8.5 ± 3.50 8.4 ± 3.28 0.040
TC (mmol/L), mean ± SD 4.8 ± 1.55 4.7 ± 1.23 4.7 ± 1.24 4.8 ± 1.77 4.8 ± 1.35 0.004 4.7 ± 1.45 4.8 ± 1.61 4.8 ± 1.64 0.035
TG (mmol/L), median (IQR) 1.5 (1.0–2.3) 1.3 (1.0–1.9) 1.4 (1.0–2.0) 1.5 (1.0–2.3) 1.6 (1.1–2.4) <0.001 1.5 (1.0–2.2) 1.5 (1.0–2.3) 1.5 (1.1–2.3) 0.521
LDL (mmol/L), mean ± SD 2.7 ± 0.88 2.6 ± 0.90 2.7 ± 0.89 2.7 ± 0.87 2.8 ± 0.89 <0.001 2.7 ± 0.87 2.8 ± 0.88 2.8 ± 0.93 0.040
HDL (mmol/L), mean ± SD 1.2 ± 0.47 1.2 ± 0.38 1.2 ± 0.45 1.2 ± 0.46 1.2 ± 0.48 <0.001 1.2 ± 0.45 1.2 ± 0.49 1.2 ± 0.41 <0.001
Female, n 13,499 1418 3831 6198 2025   6098 5790 1160  
SBP (mmHg), mean ± SD 133.4 ± 15.95 135.3 ± 16.84 135.5 ± 16.27 132.4 ± 15.69 131.3 ± 14.93 <0.001 133.8 ± 16.47 132.8 ± 15.20 133.2 ± 15.90 <0.001
DBP (mmHg), mean ± SD 78.2 ± 8.87 77.8 ± 8.98 78.4 ± 9.04 78.3 ± 8.82 77.6 ± 8.59 0.001 78.7 ± 8.96 77.9 ± 8.69 76.7 ± 8.47 <0.001
HbA1c (%), mean ± SD 7.5 ± 1.98 7.6 ± 2.12 7.6 ± 2.02 7.5 ± 1.96 7.4 ± 1.83 0.012 7.5 ± 2.03 7.5 ± 1.93 7.7 ± 1.92 0.008
FBG (mmol/L), mean ± SD 8.3 ± 3.31 8.6 ± 3.65 8.5 ± 3.43 8.3 ± 3.24 8.0 ± 2.99 <0.001 8.5 ± 3.49 8.2 ± 3.15 8.1 ± 3.12 <0.001
TC (mmol/L), mean ± SD 5.2 ± 1.33 5.1 ± 1.22 5.1 ± 1.33 5.2 ± 1.38 5.2 ± 1.20 0.014 5.1 ± 1.25 5.2 ± 1.41 5.1 ± 1.25 0.040
TG (mmol/L), Median (IQR) 1.6 (1.1–2.3) 1.5 (1.1–2.3) 1.6 (1.2–2.3) 1.6 (1.1–2.3) 1.6 (1.1–2.2) 0.142 1.6 (1.2–2.3) 1.6 (1.1–2.3) 1.5 (1.1–2.2) 0.248
LDL (mmol/L), mean ± SD 2.9 ± 0.93 2.9 ± 0.93 2.9 ± 0.94 2.9 ± 0.92 2.9 ± 0.92 0.002 2.9 ± 0.92 2.9 ± 0.92 2.9 ± 0.96 0.107
HDL (mmol/L), mean ± SD 1.4 ± 0.56 1.3 ± 0.47 1.4 ± 0.51 1.4 ± 0.50 1.4 ± 0.84 0.049 1.4 ± 0.46 1.4 ± 0.68 1.3 ± 0.45 <0.001
  1. 414 male patients and 451 female patients without household income record. FBG: fasting blood glucose; SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, TC total cholesterol; TG triglycerides, LDL low-density lipoprotein, HDL high-density lipoprotein
  2. Continuous variables were analyzed using the Student’s t test and ANOVA. Categorical variables were analyzed using the Chi squared test and Fisher’s exact test