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Table 2 The pharmaceutical treatment patterns presented by education and income levels

From: Association between socioeconomic status and metabolic control and diabetes complications: a cross-sectional nationwide study in Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Variables All patients (n = 25,454) Education p Household Net Incomea p
Illiteracy (n = 1695) Primary education (n = 5667) Secondary education (11,936) College and above (n = 6156) <2000 (n = 10,039) 2000–5000 (n = 11,586) ≥5000 (n = 2964)
OHD only, n (%) 13,988 (55.0) 988 (58.3) 3181 (56.1) 6564 (55.0) 3255 (52.9) <0.001 5497 (54.8) 6525 (56.3) 1543 (52.1) <0.001
Sulfonylureas, n (%) 6578 (47.0) 561 (56.8) 1670 (52.5) 3097 (47.2) 1250 (38.4) <0.001 2732 (49.7) 3000 (46.0) 664 (43.0) <0.001
Biguanide, n (%) 7623 (54.5) 497 (50.3) 1696 (53.3) 3662 (55.8) 1768 (54.3) 0.004 2930 (53.3) 3545 (54.3) 892 (57.8) 0.001
α-glucosidase inhibitor, n (%) 4432 (31.7) 266 (26.9) 897 (28.2) 2018 (30.7) 1251 (38.4) <0.001 1422 (25.9) 2343 (35.9) 537 (34.8) <0.001
Thiazolidinediones, n (%) 1378 (9.9) 70 (7.1) 298 (9.4) 654 (10.0) 356 (10.9) 0.003 450 (8.2) 656 (10.1) 217 (14.1) <0.001
Meglitinides, n (%) 1146 (8.2) 55 (5.6) 234 (7.4) 528 (8.0) 329 (10.1) <0.001 421 (7.7) 547 (8.4) 139 (9.0) 0.225
Insulin only, n ( %) 4446 ( 17.5) 300 (17.7) 1066 (18.8) 2035 (17.0) 1045 (17.0) <0.001 1837 (18.3) 1881 (16.2) 495 (16.7) <0.001
OHD + insulin, n ( %) 4620 (18.2) 248 (14.6) 944 (16.7) 2124 (17.8) 1304 (21.2) <0.001 1616 (16.1) 2147 (18.5) 692 (23.3) <0.001
Anti-hypertensive Agents, n (%)           
ACE inhibitor, n (%) 2121 (8.3) 172 (10.1) 479 (8.5) 959 (8.0) 511 (8.3) 0.032 794 (7.9) 992 (8.6) 252 (8.5) 0.167
angiotensin II receptor antagonist, n (%) 4084 (16.0) 262 (15.5) 885 (15.6) 1861 (15.6) 1076 (17.5) 0.006 1272 (12.7) 2059 (17.8) 586 (19.8) <0.001
Calcium channel blockers, n (%) 6202 (24.4) 451 (26.6) 1497 (26.4) 2847 (23.9) 1407 (22.9) <0.001 2356 (23.5) 2960 (25.5) 662 (22.3) <0.001
Beta-blocker 2361 (9.3) 143 (8.4) 518 (9.1) 1097 (9.2) 603 (9.8) 0.306 744 (7.4) 1181 (10.2) 316 (10.7) <0.001
Lipid Lowering Agents, n (%)           
Statins, n (%) 5054 (19.9) 301 (17.8) 1045 (18.4) 2251 (18.9) 1457 (23.7) <0.001 1662 (16.6) 2425 (20.9) 738 (24.9) <0.001
Aspirin, n (%) 4693 (18.4) 292 (17.2) 1013 (17.9) 2169 (18.2) 1219 (19.8) 0.012 1615 (16.1) 2334 (20.1) 584 (19.7) <0.001
  1. a865 patients did not have household income record. OHD oral hypoglycemic drug; ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme