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Table 1 Characteristics of male or female patients illustrated by education and income levels

From: Association between socioeconomic status and metabolic control and diabetes complications: a cross-sectional nationwide study in Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Variables All patients Education Household net income#
Illiteracy Primary education Secondary education College and above p <2000 2000–5000 ≥5000 p
Male, n 11,955 277 1836 5738 4104   3941 5796 1804  
Age (y), mean ± SD 60.9 ± 12.65 70.9 ± 10.76 67.5 ± 11.28 60.3 ± 11.88 58.2 ± 13.04 <0.001 62.1 ± 11.90 61.1 ± 12.70 57.9 ± 13.53 <0.001
BMI (kg/m2), mean ± SD 24.8 ± 3.32 24.1 ± 3.36 24.4 ± 3.39 24.8 ± 3.36 25.1 ± 3.21 <0.001 24.5 ± 3.32 24.9 ± 3.30 25.2 ± 3.34 <0.001
WC (cm), mean ± SD 87.1 ± 7.75 86.2 ± 8.62 86.2 ± 8.07 87.1 ± 7.70 87.7 ± 7.55 <0.001 86.5 ± 7.73 87.4 ± 7.66 88.0 ± 7.67 <0.001
Diabetes duration (y), median (IQR) 5.8 (2.4-10.9) 5.8 (2.5–11.0) 5.7 (2.6–11.0) 5.8 (2.5–11.0) 5.8 (2.3–10.9) 0.316 5.5 (2.3–10.9) 5.9 (2.6–11.0) 5.8 (2.3–10.9) 0.011
Current smoker, n (%) 3888 (32.5) 74 (26.7) 499 (27.2) 2021 (35.2) 1294 (31.5) 0.007 1300 (33.0) 1805 (31.1) 647 (35.9) 0.001
Alcohol consumptions, n (%) 1944 (16.3) 41 (14.8) 254 (13.8) 935 (16.3) 714 (17.4) 0.007 588 (14.9) 953 (16.4) 353 (19.6) 0.001
Sedentary lifestyle, n (%) 4355 (36.4) 160 (57.8) 763 (41.6) 2100 (36.6) 1332 (32.5) <0.001 1399 (35.5) 2139 (36.9) 683 (37.9) 0.104
Good medication adherence, n (%) 10,129 (84.7) 218 (78.7) 1541 (83.9) 4829 (84.2) 3541 (86.3) <0.001 3250 (82.5) 4964 (85.6) 1536 (85.1) <0.001
Female, n 13,499 1418 3831 6198 2025   6098 5790 1160  
Age (y), mean ± SD 64.0 ± 10.87 71.0 ± 9.34 67.2 ± 9.91 61.3 ± 10.19 61.1 ± 11.63 <0.001 64.2 ± 10.58 64.1 ± 10.83 62.4 ± 12.13 <0.001
BMI (kg/m2), mean ± SD 24.8 ± 3.78 24.7 ± 3.67 24.9 ± 3.93 24.9 ± 3.74 24.6 ± 3.68 0.024 24.8 ± 3.76 24.9 ± 3.83 24.6 ± 3.56 0.097
WC (cm), mean ± SD 78.9 ± 5.90 79.0 ± 6.07 79.0 ± 6.02 79.0 ± 5.71 78.4 ± 6.13 0.004 78.8 ± 5.93 79.0 ± 5.82 78.9 ± 5.90 <0.001
Diabetes duration (y), median (IQR) 6.8 (2.8–12.0) 7.1 (3.0–12.2) 7.2 (3.0-12.5) 6.6 (2.8–11.8) 6.7 (2.6–12.3) <0.001 6.6 (2.7–11.5) 6.9 (2.9–12.6) 7.0 (2.9–12.9) <0.001
Current smoker, n (%) 283 (2.1) 34 (2.4) 93 (2.4) 136 (2.2) 20 (1.0) <0.001 145 (2.4) 105 (1.8) 22 (1.9) <0.001
Alcohol consumptions, n (%) 67 (0.5) 10 (0.7) 17 (0.4) 29 (0.5) 11 (0.5) 0.318 31 (0.5) 28 (0.5) 5 (0.4) 0.306
Sedentary lifestyle, n(%) 4883 (36.2) 728 (51.3) 1591 (41.5) 1976 (31.9) 588 (28.7) <0.001 2222 (36.4) 2064 (35.6) 438 (37.8) 0.013
Good medication adherence, n (%) 11,927 (88.4) 1175 (82.9) 3345 (87.3) 5533 (89.3) 1874 (91.3) <0.001 5198 (85.2) 5258 (90.8) 1063 (91.6) <0.001
  1. 414 male patients and 451 female patients without household income record. BMI body mass index; WC waist circumference
  2. Continuous variables were analyzed using the Student’s t test and ANOVA. Categorical variables were analyzed using the Chi squared test and Fisher’s exact test