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Table 1 Clinical characteristics

From: Mitochondrial DNA damage and vascular function in patients with diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

  No athero or DM
(N = 98)
Athero alone
(N = 55)
DM alone
(N = 74)
Athero and DM
(N = 48)
Clinical characteristics
 Age, years 55 ± 7 60 ± 10 55 ± 10 62 ± 8
 Female, % 49 18 47 31
 Black race, % 31 27 65 29
 Hypertension, % 21 67* 70* 88*
 Hypercholesterolemia, % 56 82* 61* 85*
 Smoking ever, % 47 78 58 64
 Family history of CAD, % 32 38 27 46
 Body mass index, kg/m2 27.6 ± 5.0 29.6 ± 6.0* 34.3 ± 8.4* 31.3 ± 4.9*
 Systolic BP, mmHg 123 ± 15 130 ± 20* 135 ± 18* 141 ± 20 *
 Diastolic BP, mmHg 73 ± 9 74 ± 11 76 ± 8 78 ± 27
 Total cholesterol, mg/dl 204 ± 42 168 ± 39* 176 ± 37* 150 ± 39*
 LDL cholesterol, mg/dl 124 ± 40 97 ± 31* 101 ± 29* 82 ± 32*
 HDL cholesterol, mg/dl 58 ± 22 45 ± 14* 46 ± 15* 42 ± 13*
 Triglycerides, mg/dl 112 ± 82 134 ± 76 147 ± 95* 135 ± 95
 Fasting glucose, mg/dl 92 ± 12 107 ± 27* 181 ± 85* 163 ± 73*
 Insulin, uU/ml 7.4 ± 5.6 13.3 ± 13.8* 17.7 ± 25.6* 13.2 ± 11.5*
 ACE inhibitor or ARB therapy, N (%) 8 45* 46* 54*
 β-blocker therapy, N (%) 7 44* 23* 62*
 Lipid lowering therapy, N (%) 9 87* 42* 71*
 Antiplatelet therapy, N (%) 15 93* 44* 69*
 Insulin therapy, N (%) 0 0 43* 38*
 Metformin therapy, N (%) 0 0 53* 33*
 Sulfonylureas, N (%) 0 0 7* 8*
Vascular measures
 Baseline brachial diameter, mm 4.11 ± 0.65 4.57 ± 0.63* 4.39 ± 0.75 4.46 ± 0.64*
 Baseline brachial velocity, cm/s 16 ± 9 16 ± 6 16 ± 6 18 ± 8
 Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, % 9.3 ± 4.5 7.0 ± 3.9* 6.6 ± 4.3* 6.8 ± 4.0*
 Nitroglycerin-mediated dilation, % 13.5 ± 6.1 9.2 ± 5.7* 10.4 ± 5.1 9.2 ± 6.1*
 ln baseline pulse amplitude 5.7 ± 0.88 6.4 ± 0.63* 6.0 ± 0.78 6.3 ± 0.73*
 ln PAT ratio 0.75 ± 0.37 0.56 ± 0.33* 0.64 ± 0.39 0.55 ± 0.51
  1. Mean ± standard deviation or percent as appropriate
  2. Athero atherosclerosis, DM diabetes mellitus, CAD coronary artery disease, BP blood pressure, LDL low density lipoprotein, HDL high density lipoprotein, ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, PAT peripheral artery tonometry
  3. * P < 0.01 by ANOVA or Chi squared as appropriate