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Table 1 Patients’ characteristics according to antidiabetic drug exposure at any point during the study

From: Risks of cardiovascular diseases associated with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and other antidiabetic drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes: a nation-wide longitudinal study

  Exposed to metformin Exposed to sulfonylureas Exposed to pioglitazone Exposed to rosiglitzone Exposed to acarbose Exposed to meglitinide Exposed to DPP4i Exposed to insulin
n 172,813 101,166 6831 1018 22,800 13,103 28,508 9632
Age 57.3 ± 13.2 58.0 ± 13.2 56.3 ± 12.6 55.8 ± 13.5 58.4 ± 13.8 61.6 ± 14.5 56.6 ± 13.2 60.9 ± 15.3
Sex (male), % 51.86 54.20 52.82 59.30 51.98 53.92 54.07 56.34
CCI (1–33) 4.3 ± 3.0 4.2 ± 3.1 4.1 ± 2.9 4.3 ± 3.1 4.7 ± 3.2 5.1 ± 3.4 4.4 ± 3.0 4.9 ± 3.5
aDCSI (0–13) 1.7 ± 2.3 1.8 ± 2.5 1.7 ± 2.4 2.1 ± 2.9 2.2 ± 2.9 2.8 ± 3.5 2.1 ± 2.8 2.6 ± 3.4
Comorbidity history  
Hypertension (%) 63.67 63.14 62.88 60.11 65.82 68.67 63.89 66.01
Dyslipidemia (%) 55.70 52.66 56.68 53.13 53.90 58.13 56.94 59.06
CAD (%) 31.68 30.72 30.26 29.16 35.01 38.13 32.07 35.22
Heart failure (%) 8.48 8.89 7.23 7.51 10.54 14.85 9.46 14.70
Stroke (%) 17.74 17.51 14.33 18.34 19.57 25.06 17.38 25.13
Medication history
α-Blockers (%) 3.49 3.66 3.00 3.22 4.11 5.16 3.68 4.62
β-Blockers (%) 20.05 19.56 18.83 18.78 20.82 20.22 20.68 18.66
Diuretics (%) 16.57 16.96 15.59 13.15 17.72 19.99 14.67 19.36
CCB (%) 35.64 35.73 36.01 29.52 36.09 37.87 34.01 35.42
AECI/ARB (%) 32.60 31.48 34.48 35.06 36.20 35.29 38.46 32.82
Lipid lowering agent (%) 33.93 31.64 38.72 32.65 35.69 29.60 37.11 25.92
Anti-platelet (%) 24.53 23.84 23.35 23.43 28.05 30.75 26.56 28.98
NTG (%) 4.06 3.86 3.38 4.29 5.17 5.52 5.16 5.30
Anti-coagulants (%) 0.76 0.87 0.54 0.98 1.06 1.36 1.01 1.56
Digoxin (%) 1.82 2.00 1.52 2.42 2.33 3.59 2.05 3.60
  1. DPP4i dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index, aDCSI adapted diabetes complication severity index, CAD coronary artery diseases, CCB calcium channel blockers, ACEI/ARB angiotensin-II-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, NTG nitroglycerin