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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of all included patients and patients completing the study in the randomized groups (n = 123)

From: Effects of exercise training on carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Influence of carotid plaques

Characteristics All (n = 137)a Exercise (n = 61) Control (n = 62) p value
Age (years) 63.1 ± 7.9 63.5 ± 8.0 63.2 ± 7.2 0.82
Gender (male/female), n 115/22 54/7 50/12 0.34
Ethnicity (Caucasian/non-Caucasian), n 114/23 53/8 52/10 0.83
Current smoker, n (%) 23 (17) 10 (16) 9 (15) 0.97
Previous smokers, n (%) 65 (47) 30 (50) 30 (50) 1.00
BMI (kg/m2) 29.2 ± 5.0 29.2 ± 4.0 29.0 ± 5.6 0.80
Waist circumference (cm) 106.1 ± 12.7 106.7 ± 11.2 105.3 ± 14.2 0.55
Years of diabetesb 9 (5, 15) 10 (5, 15) 9 (5, 13) 0.48
Microvascular complicationsc, n (%) 55 (40) 24 (39) 23 (37) 0.94
Hypertension, n (%) 100 (73) 45 (74) 46 (74) 1.00
Angina pectoris, n (%) 51 (37) 25 (41) 26 (42) 1.00
Previous myocardial infarction, n (%) 62 (45) 25 (41) 31 (50) 0.41
Years since myocardial infarctionb 3 (1, 11) 3 (1, 11) 3 (1, 11) 0.92
Previous PCI, n (%) 92 (67) 37 (61) 46 (74) 0.16
Previous CABG, n (%) 38 (28) 17 (28) 19 (31) 0.89
Chronic heart failure, n (%) 11 (8) 2 (3) 5 (8) 0.45
NYHA class II, n (%) 30 (22) 9 (15) 18 (29) 0.090
HbA1c (%)b 7.4 (6.8, 8.3) 7.3 (6.8, 8.3) 7.3 (6.8, 7.9) 0.90
Creatinine (μmol/L)b 79 (68, 91) 78 (69, 91) 67 (81, 88) 0.92
Medication, n (%)
 Anti-platelet therapy 129 (94) 56 (92) 61 (98) 0.20
 Statins 128 (93) 57 (93) 58 (94) 1.00
 Beta-blockers 106 (77) 49 (80) 48 (77) 0.86
 ACE-inhibitors/ARB 97 (70) 39 (64) 46 (74) 0.30
 CCB 45 (33) 19 (31) 21 (34) 0.85
 Metformin 101 (74) 47 (77) 46 (74) 0.87
 Sulfonylurea 48 (35) 25 (41) 17 (27) 0.16
 Gliptins 17 (12) 6 (10) 11 (18) 0.31
 Insulin/insulin-analogues 26 (19) 10 (16) 12 (19) 0.85
  1. Data are presented as proportions or mean ± SD if not otherwise stated
  2. BMI body mass index, PCI percutanous coronary intervention, CABG coronary artery bypass grafting, NYHA New York Heart Association functional classification of dyspnea, ACE angiotensin converting enzyme, ARB angiotensin receptor II blocker, CCB calcium channel blockers
  3. p value refers to between group differences at baseline in patients who completed the study
  4. aNo significant between group differences
  5. bMedian (25, 75 percentiles)
  6. cDefined as known diabetes microvascular complications, albuminuria (including micro-) and/or positive monofilament test at baseline