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Table 1 Demographic, clinical, lifestyle and genetic characteristics of the study participants at baseline according to the CLOCK-rs4580704 genotype

From: CLOCK gene variation is associated with incidence of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in type-2 diabetic subjects: dietary modulation in the PREDIMED randomized trial

  CC (n = 2667) CG (n = 3415) GG (n = 1016) P1
Age (years) 66.9 (6.2) 67.0 (6.2) 67.0 (6.3) 0.961
Weight (Kg) 76.9 (12.0) 77.1 (12.1) 75.4 (11.5) <0.001
BMI (Kg/m2) 30.0 (3.8) 30.0 (3.9) 29.7 (3.8) 0.030
Waist circumference (cm) 100.5 (10.3) 100.6 (10.9) 99.3 (10.3) 0.002
Female sex n,  % 1551 (58.2) 1932 (56.6) 587 (57.8) 0.444
Current smokers n,  % 365 (13.7) 494 (14.5) 143 (14.1) 0.399
T2D prevalence n,  % 1314 (49.3) 1616 (47.3) 497 (48.9) 0.291
CLOCK-rs4580704 n,  %        0.570
 MedDiet with EVOO 901 (33.8) 1208 (35.4) 339 (33.4)  
 MedDiet with nuts 927 (34.8) 1078 (31.6) 328 (32.3)  
 Control 839 (31.5) 1129 (33.1) 349 (34.4)  
SBP (mm Hg) 149.1 (20.8) 149.6 (20.7) 149.5 (21.0) 0.676
DBP (mm Hg) 83.5 (11.1) 83.5 (10.9) 83.0 (11.0) 0.389
Heart rate (bpm) 71.5 (11.1) 71.4 (11.3) 70.7 (10.8) 0.117
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 209.9 (37.8) 211.2 (39.0) 210.0 (36.2) 0.417
LDL-C (mg/dL) 129.2 (33.7) 130.0 (34.0) 129.6 (32.7) 0.635
HDL-C (mg/dL) 53.8 (13.7) 53.6 (13.9) 54.5 (14.3) 0.224
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 137.5 (75.5) 137.6 (75.1) 132.6 (68.6) 0.109
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 122.9 (41.8) 121.8 (41.8) 120.4 (39.1) 0.268
Energy intake (kcal/d) 2275 (603) 2281 (605) 2272 (605) 0.887
Total fat (g/d) 98.8 (30.3) 99.1 (30.6) 97.8 (29.9) 0.510
Saturated fat (g/d) 25.2 (9.2) 25.5 (9.3) 25.0 (8.9) 0.313
MUFA (g/d) 48.9 (16.0) 49.0 (16.0) 48.6 (16.0) 0.832
PUFA (g/d) 15.8 (6.9) 15.9 (7.2) 15.6 (6.6) 0.380
Proteins (g/d) 92.3 (22.8) 92.6 (23.2) 93.2 (23.5) 0.558
Carbohydrates (g/d) 239.6 (80.6) 239.5 (81.1) 239.9 (81.2) 0.987
Adherence to the MedDiet (points)a 8.6 (2.0) 8.7 (2.0) 8.7 (2.0) 0.037
Alcohol consumption (g/d) 8.3 (14.4) 8.6 (14.1) 8.4 (14.6) 0.718
Physical activity (METs-min/day) 232 (238) 227 (237) 243 (253) 0.218
  1. Total indicates the maximum number of participants included with genotype data and demographic, anthropometric, adherence to MedDiet, physical activity and clinical variables. For dietary intake obtained by food-frequency questionnaires n = 7040 subjects were analyzed after exclusion of n = 58 subjects with invalid data. Biochemical data were available for fasting glucose (n = 6716 participants) total cholesterol (n = 6834 participants), HDL cholesterol (n = 6753 participants), LDL cholesterol (n = 6698 participants), and triglycerides (n = 6795 participants)
  2. MUFA Monounsaturated fatty acids, MedDiet Mediterranean diet, EVOO extra virgin olive oil
  3. aBased on a 14-point screener of adherence
  4. 1 P unadjusted P-value obtained in the ANOVA test