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Table 2 Changes at 36 months from baseline

From: Effects of analogue insulin in multiple daily injection therapy of type 2 diabetes on postprandial glucose control and cardiac function compared to human insulin: a randomized controlled long-term study

Parameter (dimension) Analogue insulin group AI (n = 61) p within-group Human insulin group HI (n = 48) p within-group p inter-group
Glucose fasting (mg/dl) −7 [−12] ± 52 [53] 0.375 [0.095] −17 [−19] ± 42 [44] 0.021 [0.008] 0.336 [0.510]
Glucose pp (mg/dl) −20 [−20] ± 62 [64] 0.038 [0.021] 9 [4] ± 53 [56] 0.335 [0.676] 0.032 [0.047]
HbA1c (%) −0.4 [−0.6] ± 1.5 [1.7] 0.063 [0.011] −1.3 [−1.2] ± 1.8 [1.7] 0.000 [0.000] 0.024 [0.082]
Intact proinsulina (pmol/l) −0.9 {−2.3 to 0.8} 0.171 0.3 {−0.9 to 2.7} 0.199 0.048
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 0 [1] {−12 [−18] to 33 [34]} 0.496 [0.577] 11 [8] {6 [−15] to 41 [41]} 0.016 [0.167] 0.153 [0.467]
Triglycerides pp (mg/dl) 10 [9] {−15 [−22] to 39 [45]} 0.081 [0.198] 24 [17] {−4 [−10] to 64 [55]} 0.023 [0.040] 0.317 [0.424]
Cholesterol (mg/dl) 10 [10] ± 49 [50] 0.161 [0.186] 6 [6] ± 43 [42] 0.437 [0.375] 0.668 [0.699]
LDL (mg/dl) 5 [3] ± 40 [43] 0.420 [0.685] −7 [−5] ± 39 [38] 0.262 [0.408] 0.170 [0.367]
HDL (mg/dl) 1 [0] {−3 [−5] to 4 [5]} 0.636 [0.628] 2 [1] {−6 [−6] to 9 [9]} 0.493 [0.487] 0.844 [0.668]
Creatinine (mg/dl) 0 [0] {−0.10 [−0.10] to 0.10 [0.10]} 0.954 [0.710] 0.10 [0.09] {0 [−0.03] to 0.10 [0.15]} 0.018 [0.009] 0.054 [0.064]
ASAT U/l −2 [−1] {−7 [−11] to 3 [6]} 0.096 [0.400] 1 [1] {−4 [−11] to 10 [11]} 0.586 [0.734] 0.126 [0.554]
hsCRP (mg/dl) 0 [−0.01] {−0.18 [−0.24] to 0.1 [0.14]} 0.468 [0.521] 0.05 [0.01] {−0.1 [−0.19] to 0.15 [0.18]} 0.307 [0.669] 0.199 [0.525]
LV enddiast. diameter (mm) 2 [2] {−2 [−2] to 6 [5]} 0.041 [0.032] 1 [1] {0 [−1] to 3 [3]} 0.149 [0.151] 0.387 [0.395]
Septal thickness (mm) 0 [−0.1] {−2 [−1.4] to 2 [2]} 0.948 [0.733] 0 [0] {−2 [−1.6] to 1 [1.7]} 0.718 [0.706] 0.768 [0.722]
Post. wall thickness (mm) 1 [0.8] {−1 [−0.9] to 2 [1.4]} 0.103 [0.082] 1 [0.9] {0 [−0.4] to 2 [2]} 0.010 [0.012] 0.388 [0.501]
S’ (cm/s) 0 [0] ± 0.8 [0.8] 0.889 [0.801] 0.1 [0.1] ± 1 [0.9] 0.504 [0.571] 0.516 [0.753]
E’ (cm/s) 0.4 [0.5] ± 1.4 [1.4] 0.069 [0.013] 0.1 [0] ± 1.3 [1.3] 0.738 [0.853] 0.312 [0.059]
E’ pp (cm/s) 0.6 [0.6] ± 1.4 [1.4] 0.009 [0.002] 0.2 [0.1] ± 1.4 [1.5] 0.435 [0.430] 0.241 [0.110]
E/E’ (mmHg) −0.1 [−0.01] {−1.52 [−1.54] to 1.54 [1.46]} 0.870 [0.657] 0.35 [0.25] {−0.9 [−1.02] to 1.99 [1.98]} 0.136 [0.182] 0.192 [0.198]
IMT (mm) 0.03 [0.05] ± 0.17 [0.18] 0.200 [0.048] 0.06 [0.07] ± 0.19 [0.18] 0.091 [0.018] 0.551 [0.649]
Elasticity modulus (kPa) 15 [8] {−36 [−40] to 49 [60]} 0.363 [0.463] 30 [8] {−41 [−65] to 78 [68]} 0.313 [0.622] 0.643 [0.740]
PWV (m/s) 0.2 [0.1] {−0.9 [−0.9] to 0.9 [1.1]} 0.684 [0.494] 0.5 [0] {−1 [−1.4] to 1.7 [1.4]} 0.319 [0.622] 0.448 [0.693]
Heart rate (bpm) −4 [−4] {−10 [−10] to 5 [4]} 0.057 [0.026] −4 [−4] {−7 [−7] to 3 [3]} 0.026 [0.079] 0.920 [0.630]
Systolic BP (mmHg) 3 [7] {−9 [−9] to 20 [20]} 0.175 [0.087] 20 [17] {−5 [−4] to 29 [29]} 0.008 [0.002] 0.065 [0.075]
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 5 [5] ± 12 [12] 0.005 [0.003] 10 [11] ± 12 [12] 0.000 [0.000] 0.062 [0.064]
  1. Italics p values indicate significant changes at 36 months
  2. Mean ± SD or median {interquartile range} respectively; additional results from multiple imputation analysis in brackets [ ]
  3. pp postprandial, LV left ventricular, E/E’ estimated LV filling pressure, EA ratio of mitral inflow velocities, IMT intima media thickness, PWV pulse wave velocity, BP blood pressure
  4. aData from representative subgroups (A = 36 and H = 31)