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Table 2 Changes in target organ damage and arterial stiffness by gender

From: Gender differences in the progression of target organ damage in patients with increased insulin resistance: the LOD-DIABETES study

Men Baseline (n = 71) 1st year (n = 69) 2nd year (n = 69) 3rd year (n = 69) p
Vascular
 C-IMT average (mm) 0.779 ± 0.127 0.776 ± 0.123 0.769 ± 0.123 0.796 ± 0.126 0.005
 Plaques carotid n (%) 16 (23.2) 15 (21.7) 19 (27.5) 21 (30.4) 0.148
 ABI* 1.15 ± 0.11 1.19 ± 0.12 1.18 ± 0.13 1.16 ± 0.11 <0.001
 PWV (m/s) 9.31 ± 2.32 9.33 ± 2.64 9.68 ± 2.37 9.48 ± 2.47 0.661
Renal
 Serum creatinine (mg/dL) 0.95 ± 0.14 0.97 ± 0.18 0.93 ± 0.17 0.96 ± 0.18 0.110
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 89.5 ± 16.8 88.5 ± 18.3 92.3 ± 19.8 87.9 ± 18.2 0.072
 Albumin/creatinine ratio (mg/g) 34.8 ± 81.4 44.0 ± 122.9 37.7 ± 113.8 45.9 ± 156.8 0.826
Heart
 Cornell VDP (mm/ms) 1487 ± 573 1538 ± 506 1515 ± 543 1458 ± 535 0.285
 Sokolow (mm/ms)*§|| 20.3 ± 5.9 18.7 ± 6.2 21.3 ± 6.6 20.4 ± 6.8 <0.001
Women Baseline (n = 41) 1st year (n = 41) 2nd year (n = 41) 3rd year (n = 41) p
Vascular     
 C-MT average (mm)§ 0.715 ± 0.092 0.728 ± 0.076 0.726 ± 0.099 0.754 ± 0.115 0.034
 Plaques carotid, n (%)†§ 3 (7.3) 3 (7.3) 6 (14.6) 11 (26.8) <0.001
 ABI*†‡ 1.07 ± 0.10 1.17 ± 0.09 1.18 ± 0.10 1.14 ± 0.09 <0.001
 PWV (m/s) 9.74 ± 2.70 9.21 ± 2.11 9.14 ± 2.34 9.79 ± 2.92 0.286
Renal
 Serum creatinine (mg/dL) 0.73 ± 0.11 0.73 ± 0.12 0.70 ± 0.13 0.72 ± 0.14 0.285
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 89.1 ± 16.6 93.2 ± 22.6 95.0 ± 16.6 93.1 ± 22.1 0.163
 Albumin/creatinine ratio (mg/g) 14.6 ± 37.4 6.6 ± 6.6 3.0 ± 5.6 9.1 ± 14.8 0.122
Heart
 Cornell VDP (mm/ms) 1741 ± 598 1756 ± 542 1852 ± 680 1838 ± 740 0.430
 Sokolow (mm/ms)§ 19.1 ± 6.1 19.4 ± 5.3 20.5 ± 5.6 19.6 ± 5.7 0.013
  1. Data for qualitative variables are expressed as n: number and (%) and quantitative variables as mean ± standard deviation
  2. C Carotid, IMT intima media thickness carotid, ABI ankle brachial index, PWV pulse wave velocity, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, Cornell VDP cornell voltage duration product
  3. p < 0.05: between * baseline and 1st year; baseline and 2nd year; baseline and 3rd year
  4. p < 0.05: between §1st and 2nd year; ||1st and 3rd year
  5. p < 0.05 between 2nd and 3rd year