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Table 1 Changes in cardiovascular risk factors and medications used by gender

From: Gender differences in the progression of target organ damage in patients with increased insulin resistance: the LOD-DIABETES study

  Baseline (n=71) 1st year (n=69) 2nd y (n=69) 3rd y (n=69) p
Men
 Smoker’s, n (%)†‡§|| 20 (29) 20 (29) 14 (20) 14 (20) <0.001
 Ischemic heart disease n (%) 8 (11) 8 (12) 9 (13) 9 (13) 1.00
 Cerebrovascular disease n (%) 2 (3) 2 (3) 2 (3) 3 (4) 0.392
 BMI (kg/m2) 30.0 ± 4.1 30.3 ± 4.2 30.4 ± 4.4 30.3 ± 4.5 0.526
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 198.3 ± 39.3 191.5 ± 41.6 188.9 ± 36.7 183.4 ± 34.4 <0.001
 Tryglicerides (mg/dL) 160.6 ± 65.6 153.9 ± 92.8 153.5 ± 101.2 151.7 ± 129.2 0.864
 LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 121.5 ± 36.2 114.6 ± 34.9 110.6 ± 34.8 109.2 ± 32.9 0.026
 HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)†‡§|| 44.6 ± 9.2 45.4 ± 10.0 48.1 ± 11.4 48.3 ± 11.7 <0.001
 Atherogenic index†‡|| 4.6 ± 1.3 4.4 ± 1.5 4.2 ± 1.3 4.0 ± 1.2 <0.001
 Serum glucose (mg/dL) 111.4 ± 32.3 115.3 ± 43.8 112.1 ± 40.7 114.1 ± 37.4 0.759
 HbA1c (%) 6.36 ± 1.23 6.51 ± 1.34 6.51 ± 1.06 6.46 ± 1.08 0.493
 HOMA-IR 3.2 ± 2.3 4.3 ± 10.5 2.2 ± 1.9 3.0 ± 2.2 0.284
 Office SBP (mm Hg)*‡¶ 141 ± 11 134 ± 15 138 ± 16 132 ± 16 <0.001
 Office DBP (mm Hg)*†‡||¶ 86 ± 10 81 ± 9 82 ± 10 77 ± 9 <0.001
 Mean blood pressure (mmHg)‡||¶ 101 ± 11 99 ± 10 101 ± 10 96 ± 10 <0.001
 Mean Antihypertensive drugs*†‡ 1.07 ± 1.06 1.49 ± 1.26 1.61 ± 1.32 1.64 ± 1.31 <0.001
 Antihypertensive drugs n (%)†‡ 42 (60.9) 50 (72.5) 51 (73.9) 52 (75.4) <0.001
 Mean Lipid lowering drugs†‡ 0.54 ± 0.53 0.62 ± 0.55 0.68 ± 0.61 0.68 ± 0.58 <0.001
 Lipid lowering drugs n (%)†‡ 36 (52.2) 41 (59.4) 42 (60.9) 43 (62.3) 0.048
 Mean antidiabetic drugs†‡ 0.75 ± 0.81 0.83 ± 0.82 0.91 ± 0.92 0.86 ± 0.88 0.048
 Antidiabetic drugs, n (%) 38 (55.1) 42 (60.9) 42 (60.9) 42 (60.9) 0.875
  Baseline (n = 41) 1st year (n = 41) 2nd year (n = 41) 3rd year (n = 41) p
Women
 Smoker’s, n (%) 5 (12.2) 5 (12.2) 5 (12.2) 5 (12.2) 1.00
 Ischemic heart disease, n (%) 2(5) 2 (5) 3 (7) 3 (7) 0.392
 Cerebrovascular disease, n (%) 0 0 0 0
 BMI (kg/m2) 30.0 ± 4.1 30.3 ± 4.2 30.4 ± 4.4 30.3 ± 4.5 0.526
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 204.1 ± 43.8 201.2 ± 37.4 196.2 ± 26.8 188.4 ± 27.2 0.099
 Tryglicerides (mg/dL) 140.8 ± 58.7 129.9 ± 40.5 138.4 ± 61.1 129.6 ± 50.5 0.671
 LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 121.9 ± 37.5 121.8 ± 31.1 112.8 ± 25.6 109.9 ± 24.0 0.084
 HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)†§ 51.9 ± 13.6 53.5 ± 13.6 55.8 ± 14.1 53.3 ± 11.4 0.027
 Atherogenic index 4.1 ± 1.1 3.9 ± 1.0 3.7 ± 1.1 3.7 ± 1.1 0.069
 Serum glucose (mg/dL) 116.7 ± 34.7 114.5 ± 39.3 117.4 ± 40.4 110.6 ± 28.9 0.606
 HbA1c (%) 6.37 ± 1.11 6.39 ± 1.04 6.53 ± 1.04 6.51 ± 1.04 0.220
 HOMA-IR 3.1 ± 2.5 4.2 ± 11.6 2.9 ± 5.0 2.6 ± 2.2 0.175
 Office SBP (mm Hg) 134 ± 17 133 ± 21 131 ± 15 131 ± 17 0.738
 Office DBP (mm Hg) 83 ± 12 81 ± 12 78 ± 10 77 ± 10 <0.001
 Mean Blood Pressure (mmHg) 97 ± 10 98 ± 13 97 ± 10 95 ± 11 0.260
 Mean Antihypertensive Drugs 1.46 ± 1.27 1.54 ± 1.12 1.78 ± 1.17 1.66 ± 0.94 0.133
 Antihypertensive Drugs n (%) 29(70.7) 32 (78.0) 34 (82.9) 36 (87.8) <0.001
 Mean Lipid lowering drugs‡|| 0.56 ± 0.59 0.56 ± 0.59 0.68 ± 0.57 0.71 ± 0.56 0.017
 Lipid lowering drugs, n (%)†‡ 21 (51.2) 22 (53.7) 26 (63.4) 27 (65.9) 0.033
 Mean antidiabetic drugs 0.95 ± 0.97 0.85 ± 0.96 1.04 ± 1.07 0.93 ± 0.96 0.108
 Antidiabetic drugs, n (%) 24 (60.9) 24 (60.9) 24 (60.9) 24 (60.9) 1.000
  1. Data for qualitative variables are expressed as n: number (%) and quantitative variables as mean ± standard deviation
  2. BMI body mass index, LDL low density lipoprotein, HDL high density lipoprotein, HbA1C glycosylated hemoglobin, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure
  3. p < 0.05: between * baseline and 1st year; baseline and 2nd year; baseline and 3rd year
  4. p < 0.05: between §1st and 2nd year; ||1st and 3rd year
  5. p < 0.05 between 2nd and 3rd year