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Table 1 Clinical and metabolic characteristics

From: Soluble RAGE and atherosclerosis in youth with type 1 diabetes: a 5-year follow-up study

  Baseline 5 year follow-up
Diabetes (n = 299) Controls (n = 112) p value Diabetes (n = 241) Controls (n = 128) p value
Diabetes duration (years)a 5.1 (2.9, 7.7)    9.6 (7.5, 12.6)   
Insulin pump users (%) 53.3    61.3   
Age (years) 13.7 (2.8) 13.4 (2.5) 0.207 18.7 (2.8) 18.7 (2.9) 0.895
Girls, n (%) 150 (50.2) 64 (57.1) 0.224 129 (53.5) 72 (56.3) 0.661
Height (cm) 160.5 (14.4) 157.6 (13.3) 0.060 171.2 (9.1) 172.1 (9.2) 0.383
Weight (kg) 54.8 (16.7) 48.5 (13.2) <0.001 71.0 (14.6) 66.9 (12.5) 0.006
BMI (kg/m2) 20.8 (3.9) 19.2 (3.1) <0.001 24.1 (4.3) 22.5 (3.4) <0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 71.1 (10.0) 66.8 (6.6) <0.001 79.0 (9.6) 75.5 (8.2) <0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 101 (10.1) 98 (10) 0.025 112 (11) 111 (10) 0.656
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 60 (8) 58 (7) 0.017 70 (8) 68 (8) 0.024
HbA1c (%) [mmol/mol, SD] 8.4 (1.2) [68, 13.1] 5.3 (0.3) [34, 3.3] <0.001 9.0 (1.4) [75, 15.3] 5.2 (0.3) [33, 3.3] <0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.6 (0.8) 4.3 (0.7) 0.001 4.8 (1.0) 4.4 (1.0) 0.001
HDL (mmol/L) 1.8 (0.4) 1.7 (0.4) 0.048 1.6 (0.5) 1.6 (0.4) 0.161
LDL (mmol/L) 2.5 (0.7) 2.3 (0.7) 0.016 2.7 (0.8) 2.5 (0.8) 0.014
Triglycerides (mmol/L)a 0.7 (0.5, 0.9) 0.7 (0.5, 0.9) 0.367 0.9 (0.6, 1.3) 0.8 (0.6, 1.0) 0.024
Apolipoprotein B (g/L) 0.74 (0.19) 0.66 (0.17) <0.001 0.90 (0.26) 0.79 (0.23) <0.001
Apolipoprotein A1 (g/L) 1.55 (0.28) 1.44 (0.33) 0.001 1.56 (0.31) 1.48 (0.27) 0.006
ApoB/ApoA1 0.5 (0.2) 0.5 (0.3) 0.698 0.6 (0.2) 0.5 (0.2) 0.025
Urine albumin/creatinine (mg/mmol)a 0.70 (0.40, 1.30) 0.63 (0.36, 1.33) 0.688 0.65 (0.30, 1.55) 0.34 (0.19, 0.90) 0.001
  1. Mean values (SD)
  2. aMedian (25th and 75th percentile)