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Table 2 Anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular parameters at baseline and post interventions

From: Reduction in peripheral vascular resistance predicts improvement in insulin clearance following weight loss

Variables Control HCD Group × time interaction (P)
Baseline Week 16 Baseline Week 16
Anthropometric
 Body weight (kg) 97.8 ± 4.0 98.2 ± 4.2 98.6 ± 4.1 90.4 ± 4.0*** <0.001
 Δ   0.4 ± 0.4   −8.1 ± 0.6  
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 32.8 ± 0.9 32.9 ± 1.0 33.9 ± 1.7 31.2 ± 1.7*** <0.001
 Δ   0.2 ± 0.2   −2.7 ± 0.2  
 Waist circumference (cm) 106.1 ± 2.3 106.5 ± 2.2 107.8 ± 2.8 100.3 ± 2.8*** <0.001
 Δ   0.4 ± 0.4   −7.5 ± 0.9  
 Waist to hip ratio 0.91 ± 0.02 0.92 ± 0.02 0.91 ± 0.02 0.89 ± 0.01*** 0.001
 Δ   0.0 ± 0.0   −0.03 ± 0.01  
 Total body fat mass (kg) 38.0 ± 2.9 38.0 ± 3.0 42.0 ± 2.7 35.8 ± 3.1*** <0.001
 Δ   0.1 ± 0.3   −6.2 ± 0.7  
Metabolic and biochemical
 Fasting glucose (mmol/L) 5.8 ± 0.1 5.9 ± 0.1 6.1 ± 0.2 5.8 ± 0.1** 0.03
 Δ   0.0 ± 0.1   −0.3 ± 0.1  
 Fasting insulin (mU/L) 18.8 ± 1.7 20.4 ± 1.6* 18.0 ± 1.4 13.8 ± 1.2*** <0.001
 Δ   1.7 ± 0.9   −4.2 ± 0.7  
 Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.5 ± 0.1 1.4 ± 0.1 1.7 ± 0.2 1.1 ± 0.1*** 0.02
 Δ   −0.1 ± 0.1   −0.6 ± 0.2  
 HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.29 ± 0.07 1.20 ± 0.06* 1.21 ± 0.05 1.25 ± 0.07 0.02
 Δ   −0.09 ± 0.04   0.04 ± 0.03  
 LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.4 ± 0.1 3.4 ± 0.2 3.8 ± 0.2 3.5 ± 0.2** 0.02
 Δ   0.0 ± 0.1   −0.3 ± 0.1  
 NEFA (mEq/L) 0.53 ± 0.04 0.51 ± 0.04 0.57 ± 0.05 0.55 ± 0.04 0.93
 Δ   −0.02 ± 0.03   −0.02 ± 0.04  
 Leptin (ng/mL) 18.7 ± 4.6 19.1 ± 3.6 21.6 ± 4.7 13.1 ± 3.4*** <0.001
 Δ   0.4 ± 1.6   −8.5 ± 2.1  
 High sensitivity CRP (mg/L) 3.3 ± 0.8 3.5 ± 0.9 3.2 ± 0.6 2.2 ± 0.4* 0.12
 Δ   0.2 ± 0.6   −0.9 ± 0.3  
 Creatinine clearance (mL/min) 150 ± 11 147 ± 9 140 ± 10 118 ± 7** 0.06
 Δ   −3 ± 6   −22 ± 10  
Cardiovascular
 Clinic MAP (mmHg) 92 ± 3 95 ± 3 89 ± 2 86 ± 2* 0.007
 Δ   3 ± 2   −3 ± 1  
 Clinic heart rate (bpm) 62 ± 2 61 ± 2 62 ± 2 59 ± 2* 0.41
 Δ   −2 ± 1   −3 ± 1  
 Cardiac BRS (ms/mmHg) 15.7 ± 2.2 15.7 ± 1.9 18.0 ± 2.6 23.7 ± 2.9* 0.16
 Δ   0.0 ± 2.2   5.8 ± 2.3  
 Calf vascular resistance (units) 53.0 ± 6.7 57.4 ± 4.4 51.3 ± 4.9 47.1 ± 3.3 0.18
 Δ   4.4 ± 4.6   −4.2 ± 3.9  
 Finger reactive hyperaemic index 2.35 ± 0.15 2.42 ± 0.16 2.38 ± 0.19 2.26 ± 0.15 0.44
 Δ   0.07 ± 0.13   −0.12 ± 0.20  
 PAT ratio 0.68 ± 0.09 0.67 ± 0.09 0.67 ± 0.10 0.62 ± 0.09 0.77
 Δ   −0.01 ± 0.10   −0.05 ± 0.11  
 Cardiac output (L/min) 5.3 ± 0.3 5.6 ± 0.4 5.5 ± 0.4 5.4 ± 0.4 0.30
 Δ   0.3 ± 0.2   −0.1 ± 0.2  
  1. BRS baroreflex sensitivity, CRP C-reactive protein, MAP mean arterial pressure, NEFA non-esterified fatty acids, PAT peripheral arterial tonometry
  2. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01 and *** P < 0.001 versus Baseline; P < 0.05 and P ≤ 0.01 versus Control Group