Involvement of BMPER in high glucose-increased ALP activity. a High glucose-induced increases in BMPER mRNA levels in HCSMCs cultured for 10 days. The values represent the mean ± SEM (n = 3–4). b, c Inhibition of high glucose-induced increases in ALP mRNA levels in HCSMCs by BMPER knockdown. HCASMCs cultured in high glucose-containing media for 10 days. Representative images of the ALP-staining (b) and the percentages of the ALP-positive area relative to the total surface area of HCASMCs (c) are shown. The data are presented as mean ± SEM (n = 4–5). siC control siRNA, siB BMPER siRNA. *P < 0.05; †
P < 0.01; ns not significant.