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Table 1 Baseline patient characteristics

From: Association between daily glucose fluctuation and coronary plaque properties in patients receiving adequate lipid-lowering therapy assessed by continuous glucose monitoring and optical coherence tomography

  Overall (n = 72) Tertile 1 (MAGE <49.1) (n = 24) Tertile 2 (49.1 ≤ MAGE <85.3) (n = 24) Tertile 3 (85.3 ≤ MAGE) (n = 24) P value
Age (years) 69.9 ± 11.3 69.2 ± 12.0 71.1 ± 9.8 69.5 ± 12.3 0.82
BMI (kg/m2) 24.1 ± 3.0 23.7 ± 2.6 24.5 ± 2.4 24.0 ± 3.9 0.64
Male 58 (80.6) 19 (79.2) 19 (79.2) 20 (83.3) 0.91
DM 36 (50.0) 6 (25.0) 11 (45.8) 19 (79.2) 0.001
Hypertension 53 (73.6) 19 (79.2) 16 (66.7) 18 (75.0) 0.61
Dyslipidemia 60 (83.3) 18 (75.0) 22 (91.7) 20 (83.3) 0.30
Smoking 49 (68.1) 15 (62.5) 16 (66.7) 18 (75.0) 0.52
Current 19 (26.4) 6 (25.0) 12 (50.0) 9 (37.5)  
Former (quit >3 months) 30 (41.7) 9 (37.5) 4 (16.7) 9 (37.5)  
Prior myocardial infarction 14 (19.4) 4 (16.7) 5 (20.8) 5 (20.8) 0.92
Prior PCI 33 (45.8) 11 (45.8) 12 (50.0) 14 (58.3) 0.85
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 121.5 ± 11.4 124.1 ± 11.2 121.4 ± 10.5 119.1 ± 12.4 0.32
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 64.7 ± 9.0 64.2 ± 8.7 66.3 ± 9.3 63.5 ± 9.1 0.55
Left ventricular ejection fraction (%) 59.8 ± 9.6 57.5 ± 12.8 60.8 ± 8.7 61.1 ± 5.9 0.37
Duration of DM (years) 3.7 ± 7.7 0 3.5 ± 6.7 7.4 ± 10.5 0.003
HbA1c (NGSP) (%) 6.3 ± 1.0 5.8 ± 0.4 6.1 ± 0.6 6.9 ± 1.2 <0.001
1,5-AG (μg/mL) 15.8 ± 8.4 20.6 ± 10.2 15.5 ± 6.0 10.8 ± 5.3 <0.001
Glycoalbumin (%) 16.2 ± 3.5 14.6 ± 1.7 15.1 ± 2.7 19.2 ± 3.7 <0.001
75-g OGTT
 Fasting PG (mg/dL) 101 ± 23 89 ± 10 106 ± 29 107 ± 22 0.009
 2-h PG (mg/dL) 206 ± 78 159 ± 45 209 ± 65 255 ± 90 <0.001
 Fasting IRI (μU/mL) 6.9 ± 5.9 6.9 ± 5.3 9.0 ± 7.7 4.6 ± 3.0 0.044
 2-h IRI (μU/mL) 83.6 ± 65.7 94.9 ± 59.9 92.0 ± 71.1 59.8 ± 62.6 0.156
 HOMA R 1.8 ± 2.3 1.5 ± 1.1 2.7 ± 3.5 1.2 ± 0.7 0.056
 HOMA β 82.5 ± 72.6 109.5 ± 95.0 83.3 ± 48.8 50.9 ± 53.8 0.024
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 155.3 ± 27.9 161.8 ± 30.3 149.0 ± 21.3 154.9 ± 30.8 0.29
 LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 88.7 ± 19.1 88.5 ± 17.5 87.2 ± 17.4 90.4 ± 22.6 0.84
 HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 45.9 ± 11.3 46.1 ± 11.8 44.2 ± 11.0 47.5 ± 11.4 0.61
 Triglyceride (mg/dL) 124.8 ± 57.9 125.8 ± 68.8 128.7 ± 51.4 119.8 ± 54.5 0.87
 CRP (mg/dL) 0.21 ± 0.33 0.14 ± 0.23 0.18 ± 0.24 0.30 ± 0.47 0.25
 Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.93 ± 0.28 0.91 ± 0.21 0.88 ± 0.20 1.00 ± 0.38 0.30
Medication on admission
 Aspirin 57 (79.2) 19 (79.2) 20 (83.3) 18 (75.0) 0.78
 Thienopyridine 32 (44.4) 10 (41.7) 10 (41.7) 12 (50.0) 0.80
 Statin 54 (75.0) 17 (70.8) 20 (83.3) 17 (70.8) 0.51
 EPA 3 (4.2) 2 (8.3) 1 (4.2) 0 (0.0) 0.35
 Ezetimibe 5 (6.9) 0 (0.0) 5 (20.8) 0 (0.0) 0.005
 Fibrate 2 (2.8) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (8.3) 0.13
 ACE-I/ARB 40 (55.6) 12 (50.0) 13 (54.2) 15 (62.5) 0.75
 Beta-blocker 26 (36.1) 7 (29.2) 9 (37.5) 10 (41.7) 0.64
 Insulin 3 (4.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 3 (12.5) 0.044
 Metformin 6 (8.3) 0 (0.0) 1 (4.2) 5 (20.8) 0.022
 SU 9 (12.5) 0 (0.0) 2 (8.3) 7 (29.2) 0.007
 α-GI 5 (6.9) 0 (0.0) 2 (8.3) 3 (12.5) 0.22
 DPP4-I 12 (16.7) 0 (0.0) 5 (20.8) 7 (29.2) 0.020
Variables measured by the continuous glucose monitoring system
 MAGE (mg/dL) 70 ± 31 38 ± 8 66 ± 10 106 ± 19 <0.001
 Mean BG (mg/dL) 132 ± 29 116 ± 9 127 ± 25 153 ± 35 <0.001
 Max BG (mg/dL) 212 ± 55 165 ± 22 210 ± 48 262 ± 41 <0.001
 Min BG (mg/dL) 77 ± 28 78 ± 14 72 ± 28 79 ± 36 0.70
 Time in hyperglycemia (hours) 19.0 ± 15.4 7.6 ± 6.3 18.30 ± 14.8 31.6 ± 13.3 <0.001
Time in hypoglycemia (hours) 1.4 ± 2.7 0.3 ± 0.6 1.4 ± 1.9 2.4 ± 4.0 0.023
  1. Values are mean ± SD or no. (%) 1,5 AG: 1,5 anhydroglucitol; 75 g OGTT: 75-g oral glucose tolerance test; α-GI: α-glucosidase inhibitor; ACE-I: angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor; ARB: angiotensin II receptor blocker; BG: blood glucose; BMI: body mass index; CABG: coronary artery bypass graft; CRP: C-reactive protein; DM: diabetes mellitus; DPP4-I: dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor; EPA: eicosapentaenoic acid; HbA1c: glycated hemoglobin; HDL cholesterol: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HOMA B: homeostasis model assessment beta; HOMA R: homeostasis model assessment ratio; IRI: immunoreactive insulin; LDL cholesterol: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; MAGE: mean amplitude of glycemic excursion; PCI: percutaneous coronary intervention; PG: plasma glucose , Time in hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia were defined as the time when blood glucose levels were above 140 mg/dL and under 70 mg/dL, respectively