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Table 3 Associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels and prevalent albuminuria, retinopathy and CVD

From: Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels are independently associated with macroalbuminuria, but not with retinopathy and macrovascular disease in type 1 diabetes: the EURODIAB prospective complications study

   25-hydroxyvitamin D3 per 10 nmol/L
  Model OR 95 % CI p
Microalbuminuria (n = 83) 1 0.93 0.84; 1.03 0.17
  2 0.93 0.83; 1.05 0.26
  3 0.94 0.83; 1.06 0.30
  4 0.94 0.83; 1.06 0.30
Macroalbuminuria (n = 124) 1 0.80 0.72; 0.88 <0.001
  2 0.82 0.72; 0.94 0.003
  3 0.82 0.72; 0.94 0.005
  4 0.82 0.72; 0.94 0.005
Non-proliferative retinopathy (n = 146) 1 0.90 0.82; 0.99 0.022
  2 0.98 0.87; 1.09 0.66
Proliferative retinopathy (n = 152) 1 0.90 0.83; 0.98 0.018
  2 1.01 0.90; 1.13 0.87
CVD (n = 131) 1 0.99 0.91; 1.08 0.84
  2 1.02 0.93; 1.12 0.66
  1. OR, odds ratio indicates the odds of prevalent albuminuria, retinopathy and CVD per 10 nmol/L higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. Model 1: adjusted for age, sex and season; Model 2: model 1 + BMI, smoking (never, ex, current), HbA1c, total-HDL-cholesterol-ratio, systolic blood pressure, use of antihypertensive medication, eGFR, physical activity (0, ≤sex-specific median, >sex-specific median), alcohol intake (0, ≤70 g/wk, >70 g/wk), and prevalent albuminuria, retinopathy and CVD, as appropriate; Model 3: model 2 + low-grade inflammation score; Model 4: model 2 + endothelial dysfunction score