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Table 2 Associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 levels and prevalent albuminuria, retinopathy and cardiovascular disease

From: Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels are independently associated with macroalbuminuria, but not with retinopathy and macrovascular disease in type 1 diabetes: the EURODIAB prospective complications study

   25-hydroxyvitamin D2 per 1 nmol/L
  Model OR 95 % CI p
Microalbuminuria (n = 83) 1 0.94 0.81; 1.09 0.42
  2 0.85 0.70; 1.04 0.11
  3 0.86 0.71; 1.05 0.14
  4 0.85 0.70; 1.03 0.09
Macroalbuminuria (n = 124) 1 0.45 0.35; 0.60 <0.001
  2 0.56 0.43; 0.74 <0.001
  3 0.57 0.43; 0.75 <0.001
  4 0.56 0.42; 0.74 <0.001
Non-proliferative retinopathy (n = 146) 1 0.91 0.80; 1.03 0.15
  2 1.00 0.85; 1.16 0.95
Proliferative retinopathy (n = 152) 1 0.88 0.77; 1.00 0.06
  2 1.08 0.93; 1.25 0.33
CVD (n = 131) 1 1.02 0.92; 1.14 0.70
  2 1.03 0.90; 1.16 0.70
  1. OR, odds ratio indicates the odds of prevalent albuminuria, retinopathy and CVD, per 1 nmol/L higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D2. Model 1: adjusted for age and sex; Model 2: model 1 + BMI, smoking (never, ex, current), HbA1c, total-HDL-cholesterol-ratio, systolic blood pressure, use of antihypertensive medication, eGFR, physical activity (0, ≤sex-specific median, >sex-specific median), alcohol intake (0, ≤70 g/wk, >70 g/wk), and prevalent CVD, albuminuria and retinopathy, as appropriate; Model 3: model 2 + low-grade inflammation score; Model 4: model 2 + endothelial dysfunction score