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Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics of all patients, and low- versus high-risk patients

From: Additive prognostic value of plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and coronary artery calcification for cardiovascular events and mortality in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes

  All patients Low-risk patients High-risk patients p-values
(n = 200) (n = 67) (n = 133)
Male, n (%) 152 (76) 50 (75) 102 (77) 0.75
Age (years) 60 (54–65) 55 (47–61) 62 (59–67) <0.0001
Duration of diabetes (years) 12 (7–18) 8 (4–14) 14 (9–19) <0.0001
Body mass index (kg/m2) 31.4 (28.5-35.6) 31.7 (28.7-35.9) 31 (28–36) 0.66
HbA1c (%) 7.6 (6.9-8.8) 7.9 (7.0-9.0) 7.5 (6.8-8.8) 0.09
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 60 (52–73) 63 (53–75) 69 (51–73) 0.09
UAER (mg/24 h) 103 (39–230) 105 (44–194) 97 (38–97) 0.81
eGFR (CKD-EPI) 91.0 (76.0-102.0) 100.0 (86.0-107.0) 86.0 (74.0-97.5) <0.0001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 129 (118–142) 130 (116–140) 129 (119–142) 0.90
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.8 (3.2-4.5) 4.0 (3.4-4.8) 3.8 (3.1-4.4) 0.048
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.7 (1.3-2.2) 1.8 (1.2-2.4) 1.7 (1.3-2.1) 0.33
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.1 (0.9-1.4) 1.1 (1.0-1.3) 1.1 (0.9-1.4) 0.35
Current smoker, n (%) 59 (30) 18 (27) 41 (31) 0.56
Left ventricle ejection fraction (%) 60 (57–63) 60 (57–62) 60 (57–63) 0.33
History of stroke, n (%) 19 (10) 4 (6) 15 (11) 0.19
NT-proBNP (ng/L) 48.7 (18.6–95.0) 15.3 (9.3–26.3) 77.1 (48.7–141.7) -
Coronary artery calcium score 183 (6–604) 7 (0–104) 417 (80–963) -
Treatment with:     
Oral antidiabetic, n (%) 170 (85) 57 (85) 113 (85) 0.98
Insulin, n (%) 124 (62) 38 (57) 86 (65) 0.28
RAAS blockade, n (%) 196 (98) 65 (97) 131 (98) 0.48
Statin, n (%) 189 (95) 62 (93) 127 (95) 0.39
Aspirin, n (%) 183 (92) 58 (87) 125 (94) 0.08
Beta-blocker, n (%) 27 (14) 2 (3) 25 (19) 0.002
Calcium channel blockers, n (%) 80 (40) 21 (31) 59 (44) 0.08
Diuretics, n (%) 128 (64) 35 (52) 93 (70) 0.014
  1. High-risk patients = patients with plasma NT-proBNP levels >45.2 ng/L or plasma NT-proBNP levels ≤45.2 ng/L and coronary artery calcium score ≥400, all other low-risk patients
  2. P-values reflect comparison between high- and low-risk patients
  3. Data are expressed as median (interquartile range) or number of patients (%)
  4. UAER: urinary albumin excretion rate; RAAS: renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system