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Table 1 Clinical, Hemodynamic, and Echocardiographic Characteristics of Patients

From: Association of peripheral nerve conduction in diabetic neuropathy with subclinical left ventricular systolic dysfunction

  All Patients (n = 112) Patients with DN (n = 41) Patients without DN (n = 71) p value
Clinical Data  
Age, years 59 ± 14 61 ± 15 59 ± 12 0.40
Female, n (%) 60(54) 17(41) 43(61) 0.08
Height, m 1.60 ± 0.96 1.62 ± 0.10 1.59 ± 0.09 0.06
Weight, kg 63 ± 15 66 ± 18 61 ± 18 0.12
Body Mass Index, kg/m2 24 ± 5 25 ± 6 24 ± 4 0.48
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 125 ± 18 126 ± 16 124 ± 18 0.51
Heart rate, bpm 73 ± 11 75 ± 11 72 ± 10 0.09
Rate Pressure Product, bpm*mmHg 9132 ± 1938 9501 ± 1770 8925 ± 1997 0.12
Type 2 DM, n (%) 87(78) 33(80) 54(76) 0.64
DM duration, years 11 ± 9 15 ± 9 9 ± 8 0.001
Hypertension, n (%) 55(49) 20(49) 35(49) 1.00
Dyslipidemia, n (%) 71(63) 28(68) 43(61) 0.54
Smoking, n (%) 24(21) 8(20) 16(23) 0.81
Retinopathy, n (%) 42(38) 22(54) 20(28) 0.009
Biochemistry and Urinary Exam  
HbA1c, % 8.6 ± 2.2 8.7 ± 2.4 8.6 ± 2.1 0.75
Glycoalbumin, % 23.9 ± 9.1 24.9 ± 10.5 23.4 ± 8.1 0.42
Low-density lipoprotein, mg/dl 105 ± 35 101 ± 37 107 ± 34 0.41
Triglyceride, mg/dl 135 ± 73 130 ± 65 138 ± 77 0.55
eGFR, ml/min/1.73 m2 74 ± 23 68 ± 23 77 ± 22 0.048
Albuminuria, mg/day 10(4–31) 15(6–117) 7(3–21) 0.007
Medical treatment  
CCB, n (%) 27(24) 7(17) 20(28) 0.25
ACEI/ARB, n (%) 45(40) 17(41) 28(39) 0.83
β-blocker, n (%) 8(7) 2(5) 6(8) 0.71
Statin, n (%) 51(46) 24(59) 27(38) 0.049
Insulin, n (%) 65(58) 26(63) 39(55) 0.43
DPP-4I, n (%) 46(41) 20(49) 26(37) 0.24
GLP-1RA, n (%) 12(11) 5(12) 7(10) 0.76
Sulfonylurea, n (%) 23(21) 8(20) 15(21) 1.00
αGI, n (%) 22(20) 11(27) 11(15) 0.22
Thiazolidine, n (%) 13(12) 7(17) 6(8) 0.22
Metformin, n (%) 50(45) 20(49) 30(42) 0.56
  1. Values are mean ± SD for normally distributed data and median and interquartile range for non-normally distributed data, or n (%).
  2. DN = diabetic neuropathy; DM = diabetes mellitus; eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate; CCB = calcium channel blocker; ACEI = angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB = angiotensin II receptor blocker; DPP-4I = dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor; GLP-1RA = glucagon like peptide-1receptor agonist; α-GI = α-glucosidase inhibitor.