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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of T2DM stratified by the GGT1 genotype at baseline

From: Interactive effects of a common γ-glutamyltransferase 1 variant and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol on diabetic macro- and micro-angiopathy

  A/A (n = 219) A/G (n = 120) G/G (n = 13) P -value
Female (%) 33.3 35.0 46.2 0.61
Age (years) 59.1 ± 10.5 61.6 ± 11.7 60.0 ± 10.6 0.13
BMI (kg/m2) 24.3 ± 3.9 24.0 ± 3.4 24.1 ± 2.9 0.72
Diabetes duration (years) 10.7 ± 8.2 10.7 ± 8.8 10.8 ± 6.2 1.00
HbA1c (%) 8.4 ± 2.0 8.3 ± 2.0 8.1 ± 2.0 0.66
Systolic BP (mmHg) 139.5 ± 19.5 137.9 ± 21.3 143.4 ± 17.2 0.57
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 83.4 ± 11.4 81.8 ± 12.9 85.9 ± 9.7 0.31
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.7 ± 1.2 1.9 ± 2.3 1.8 ± 1.9 0.50
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.4 ± 0.4 1.4 ± 0.4 1.4 ± 0.3 1.00
LDL-C (mmol/L) 3.2 ± 0.8 3.2 ± 0.9 3.1 ± 0.6 0.90
AST (IU/L) 24.8 ± 9.7 27.1 ± 14.2 25.2 ± 8.4 0.22
ALT (IU/L) 26.6 ± 16.4 30.2 ± 27.2 27.7 ± 11.6 0.31
GGT (IU/L) 36.6 ± 33.1 42.2 ± 36.8 43.6 ± 24.1 0.31
Log GGT (IU/L) 1.47 ± 0.30 1.51 ± 0.30 1.57 ± 0.26 0.08
Hypertension (%) 60.3 59.2 76.9 0.50
Dyslipidemia (%) 68.8 70.8 38.5 0.07
Ever smoker (%) 45.4 41.2 33.3 0.70
Alcohol intake (%) 51.4 46.7 38.5 0.52
Therapy components     
Hypoglycemic agents     
Oral hypoglycemic agents (%) 64.1 65.5 53.8 0.72
Insulin (%) 23.0 19.3 30.8 0.52
Antihypertensive agents     
ACE inhibitors or ARBs(%) 20.3 16.0 7.7 0.44
Others(%) 23.5 26.9 23.1 0.77
Agents for hyperlipidemia     
Fibrates(%) 0.9 0.8 7.7 0.15
Statins(%) 8.3 6.7 0.0 0.70
Others (%) 0.9 1.7 0.0 0.67
  1. Data are percentages or mean ± standard deviation.
  2. T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus; GGT, γ-glutamyltransferase; BMI, body mass index; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; BP, blood pressure; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker.