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Table 4 HRs of death associated with potential risk factors, overall and stratified by eGFR category

From: Cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in a cohort of 57,946 patients with type 2 diabetes: associations with renal function and cardiovascular risk factors

  Non-death Death   eGFR category
  n = 41,368 n = 16,578 Overall 15–29 mL/min 30–44 mL/min 45–59 mL/min ≥60 mL/min
  Number (%) Number (%) HR a (95% CI) HR b (95% CI) HR b (95% CI) HR b (95% CI) HR b (95% CI)
Sex
  Men 22,752 (55.0) 9365 (56.5) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−)
  Women 18,616 (45.0) 7213 (43.5) 0.80 (0.77–0.82) 1.03 (0.87–1.21) 0.77 (0.71–0.84) 0.79 (0.75–0.84) 0.78 (0.74–0.82)
Age at start date (years)
  20–49 5428 (13.1) 295 (1.8) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−)
  50–74 29,403 (71.1) 8669 (52.3) 3.90 (3.47–4.39) 0.60 (0.25–1.48) 2.62 (1.24–5.54) 2.43 (1.62–3.63) 3.75 (3.30–4.25)
  ≥75 6537 (15.8) 7614 (45.9) 11.24 (9.97–12.67) 0.97 (0.40–2.40) 5.12 (2.43–10.80) 6.40 (4.27–9.58) 13.01 (11.42–14.83)
Duration of diabetes (years)
  <5 20,135 (48.7) 5914 (35.7) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−)
  5–9 12,134 (26.3) 4989 (30.1) 1.16 (1.12–1.21) 1.07 (0.87–1.32) 1.14 (1.03–1.27) 1.14 (1.06–1.22) 1.17 (1.11–1.23)
  10–14 5497 (13.3) 3006 (18.1) 1.32 (1.26–1.38) 1.12 (0.88–1.42) 1.26 (1.12–1.41) 1.26 (1.16–1.37) 1.35 (1.27–1.44)
  ≥15 3602 (8.7) 2669 (16.1) 1.50 (1.43–1.57) 1.30 (1.04–1.62) 1.38 (1.22–1.55) 1.46 (1.34–1.60) 1.53 (1.43–1.64)
BMI (kg/m2)
  15–19 477 (1.2) 438 (2.6) 1.51 (1.36–1.66) 1.12 (0.63–2.00) 1.30 (0.98–1.73) 1.53 (1.27–1.84) 1.56 (1.37–1.79)
  20–24 6127 (14.8) 3419 (20.6) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−)
  25–29 15,249 (36.9) 5762 (34.8) 0.78 (0.75–0.82) 0.72 (0.57–0.90) 0.82 (0.73–0.92) 0.79 (0.73–0.86) 0.78 (0.73–0.83)
  ≥30 17,577 (42.5) 5382 (32.5) 0.82 (0.78–0.85) 0.64 (0.51–0.81) 0.80 (0.71–0.90) 0.85 (0.78–0.92) 0.82 (0.77–0.87)
  Unknown 1938 (4.7) 1577 (9.5) 1.43 (1.34–1.52) 1.17 (0.88–1.55) 1.32 (1.13–1.54) 1.54 (1.37–1.72) 1.42 (1.30–1.56)
Smoking status
  Non–smoker 21,930 (53.0) 8245 (49.7) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−)
  Current 6819 (16.5) 3309 (20.0) 1.50 (1.44–1.57) 1.09 (0.84–1.40) 1.33 (1.18–1.50) 1.60 (1.48–1.74) 1.54 (1.46–1.63)
  Former 10,815 (26.1) 4196 (25.3) 1.07 (1.03–1.12) 1.04 (0.86–1.25) 1.00 (0.91–1.11) 1.09 (1.02–1.17) 1.08 (1.03–1.14)
  Unknown 1804 (4.4) 828 (5.0) 0.95 (0.88–1.02) 1.06 (0.78–1.45) 0.88 (0.73–1.06) 1.00 (0.86–1.15) 0.91 (0.82–1.01)
Number of medications
  0–1 11,963 (28.9) 3044 (18.4) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−)
  2–4 15,169 (36.7) 5289 (31.9) 1.21 (1.15–1.26) 0.90 (0.67–1.20) 1.07 (0.94–1.23) 1.19 (1.09–1.30) 1.22 (1.16–1.30)
  5–9 12,235 (29.6) 6445 (38.9) 1.45 (1.39–1.52) 1.02 (0.79–1.32) 1.15 (1.01–1.31) 1.39 (1.27–1.51) 1.53 (1.44–1.63)
  ≥10 2001 (4.8) 1800 (10.9) 2.03 (1.91–2.16) 1.03 (0.76–1.39) 1.67 (1.43–1.96) 2.01 (1.79–2.26) 2.18 (1.99–2.38)
HbA1c (%)
  <7.00 14,151 (34.2) 5231 (31.6) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−) 1 (−)
  7.00–7.99 9363 (22.6) 3460 (20.9) 1.01 (0.97–1.05) 1.29 (1.03–1.61) 1.04 (0.92–1.16) 0.98 (0.91–1.06) 1.01 (0.95–1.07)
  8.00–8.99 5333 (12.9) 1888 (11.4) 0.97 (0.92–1.02) 1.02 (0.77–1.36) 1.12 (0.97–1.29) 0.96 (0.87–1.07) 0.95 (0.88–1.02)
  9.00–9.99 3319 (8.0) 1315 (7.9) 1.14 (1.07–1.21) 1.40 (1.01–1.92) 1.24 (1.05–1.46) 1.18 (1.04–1.32) 1.11 (1.02–1.20)
  ≥10.00 3363 (8.1) 1435 (8.7) 1.35 (1.27–1.43) 1.23 (0.92–1.65) 1.46 (1.23–1.73) 1.43 (1.27–1.60) 1.31 (1.21–1.42)
  Missing 5839 (14.1) 3249 (19.6) 1.24 (1.19–1.30) 1.35 (1.09–1.67) 1.38 (1.23–1.54) 1.19 (1.09–1.30) 1.23 (1.16–1.31)
Comorbiditiesc
  Hypertension 23,223 (56.1) 9529 (57.5) 0.87 (0.84–0.90) 0.68 (0.58–0.81) 0.76 (0.70–0.83) 0.85 (0.80–0.90) 0.91 (0.87–0.95)
  Hyperlipidemia 1343 (3.2) 2655 (16.0) 2.04 (1.95–2.13) 1.68 (1.42–1.98) 1.76 (1.59–1.93) 2.13 (1.97–2.31) 2.33 (2.16–2.51)
  History of MI 3033 (7.3) 2548 (15.4) 1.14 (1.09–1.19) 1.14 (0.94–1.39) 1.14 (1.02–1.27) 1.09 (1.00–1.19) 1.20 (1.12–1.28)
  History of IS/TIA 2776 (6.7) 2899 (17.5) 1.51 (1.45–1.57) 1.12 (0.93–1.36) 1.39 (1.26–1.54) 1.46 (1.36–1.57) 1.67 (1.57–1.77)
  History of IHDd 6146 (14.9) 4052 (24.4) 1.02 (0.98–1.06) 1.10 (0.93–1.30) 0.92 (0.84–1.02) 1.01 (0.94–1.08) 1.03 (0.97–1.09)
  COPD 1075 (2.6) 1576 (9.5) 1.77 (1.68–1.87) 1.55 (1.20–2.01) 1.32 (1.14–1.54) 1.65 (1.49–1.83) 1.95 (1.81–2.10)
  Thyroid disease 3418 (8.3) 1514 (9.1) 0.92 (0.87–0.97) 0.97 (0.77–1.21) 0.89 (0.79–1.01) 0.98 (0.90–1.08) 0.90 (0.83–0.98)
  DVT 2138 (5.2) 1291 (7.8) 1.12 (1.06–1.19) 0.97 (0.76–1.23) 1.10 (0.96–1.27) 1.04 (0.94–1.15) 1.17 (1.08–1.27)
  PAD 1742 (4.2) 1953 (11.8) 1.35 (1.28–1.42) 1.01 (0.82–1.24) 1.19 (1.06–1.33) 1.41 (1.29–1.55) 1.44 (1.34–1.55)
  Anemia 2097 (5.1) 1464 (8.8) 1.24 (1.17–1.31) 1.05 (0.86–1.28) 1.26 (1.12–1.41) 1.23 (1.11–1.36) 1.29 (1.18–1.40)
  Atrial fibrillation 2483 (6.0) 1011 (6.1) 1.01 (0.95–1.07) 1.04 (0.76–1.41) 0.98 (0.83–1.16) 1.05 (0.93–1.18) 1.00 (0.91–1.09)
  Heart failure 2850 (6.9) 1161 (7.0) 1.02 (0.96–1.08) 1.07 (0.79–1.44) 1.03 (0.88–1.20) 1.04 (0.93–1.17) 0.99 (0.91–1.08)
  Gout 2370 (5.7) 1229 (7.4) 0.98 (0.92–1.04) 0.95 (0.76–1.19) 0.98 (0.86–1.12) 0.99 (0.88–1.10) 1.00 (0.92–1.10)
  Cancer 2948 (7.1) 2347 (14.2) 1.49 (1.42–1.55) 1.50 (1.20–1.88) 1.19 (1.07–1.34) 1.34 (1.23–1.45) 1.67 (1.57–1.78)
  1. aAdjusted for sex, age at start date, duration of diabetes, BMI, smoking status, number of medications, HbA1c level, presence of hypertension hyperlidemia, and history of MI, IS/TIA, IHD. and eGFR category. bAdjusted for sex, age at start date, duration of diabetes, BMI, smoking status, number of medications, HbA1c level, presence of hypertension hyperlidemia, and history of MI, IS/TIA and IHD. cRelative to absence of comorbidity. dExcluding MI.
  2. BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; DVT, deep vein thrombosis; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; HR, hazard ratio; IHD, ischemic heart disease; IS, ischemic stroke; MI, myocardial infarction; PAD, peripheral artery disease; TIA, transient ischemic attack.