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Table 1 Characteristics of the study groups

From: Type 2 diabetes-associated carotid plaque burden is increased in patients with retinopathy compared to those without retinopathy

  Diabetes without retinopathy (n = 159) Diabetes with retinopathy (n = 153) p
Sex (male/female) 82/77 76/77 0.7373
Non-Caucasian 7 (4.4%) 6 (4.6%) 0.9413
Age (yr) 59 (48–66) 61 (54–68) 0.0127
Disease duration (yr) 6 (2–10) 11 (6–20) <0.0001
Insulin treatment (n) 20 (12.6%) 84 (54.9%) <0.0001
Smoking (current/past/never) 71/54/32 78/44/30 0.5134
Antiplatelet agents 112/47 (29.6%) 82/71 (46.4%) 0.0022
Dyslipidaemia (yes/no) 88/71 (44.7%) 79/74 (48.4%) 0.5111
Hypertension (yes/no) 83/76 (47.8%) 48/105 (68.3%) 0.0002
Systolic BP (mm Hg) 134 (123–145) 143 (133–159) <0.0001
Diastolic BP (mm Hg) 76 (70–83) 77.5 (68.5-85.5) 0.7526
HR (b/min) 75 (68–82) 77 (70–86) 0.0767
Body mass index (kg/m2) 30.3 (27.4-34.0) 31.1 (28.3-35) 0.2477
Waist circumference (cm) 103 (96–111) 107.5 (163–114) 0.0039
Haemoglobin A1c (%) 7.1 (6.5-7.9) 8.1 (7.2-9.1) <0.0001
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 184 (163–207) 181 (162–204.5) 0.9889
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) 47 (40–57) 50.5 (42–60.5) 0.0308
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) 108 (90.2-130.2) 105.4 (86.5-127.8) 0.2694
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 118 (89–171) 116 (83–168) 0.6181
Serum creatinine (μmol/l) 0.79 (0.69-0.92) 0.79 (0.68-0.93) 0.7975
Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, mg/g 5.8 (3.2-11) 12.4 (6–32.7) <0.0001
  1. Data are presented as the median values and interquartile ranges. BP, blood pressure.