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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the study population

From: Plasma levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2, -3, -10, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 are associated with vascular complications in patients with type 1 diabetes: the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study

  Vascular complications No vascular complications p-value
  (n = 306) (n = 187)  
Age (years) 41.6 (10.4) 36.1 (8.1) <0.001
Sex (male/female, %) 54/46 46/54 0.096
BMI (kg/m2) 24.8 (3.5) 23.9 (2.6) <0.001
HbA1c (%) 9.0 (1.6) 7.7 (1.3) <0.001
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 75 (17.4) 61 (14.1) <0.001
Duration of diabetes (years) 25.2 (8.9) 15.5 (7.0) <0.001
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.30 (1.06) 2.88 (0.93) <0.001
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.59 (0.42) 1.68 (0.45) 0.032
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.13 [0.84-1.58] 0.85 [0.67-1.09] <0.001
Smoking (no/former/current) (%) 36/31/33 46/26/28 0.047
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 127 (21) 115 (13) <0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 75 (12) 73 (10) 0.085
Serum creatinine (μmol/l) 76.0 [68.0-90.0] 71.0 [64.0-79.0] <0.001
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 95.7 [79.0-107.9] 107.9 [97.2-115.6] <0.001
Cardiovascular disease (%) 38.6 - -
Albuminuria (normo-/micro-/macro-)(%) 37.9/25.2/36.9 - -
Retinopathy (no/background/proliferative) (%) 11.4/40.9/47.7 - -
Antihypertensive medication (%) 45.4 5.9 <0.001
ACE-inhibitor (%) 37.6 4.3 <0.001
MMP-1 (ng/ml) 12.8 [7.0-19.9] 10.8 [5.9-16.5] 0.006
MMP-2 (ng/ml) 110 [100–120] 103 [96–110] <0.001
MMP-3 (ng/ml) 17.8 [11.2-28.3] 12.9 [8.3-19.6] <0.001
MMP-9 (ng/ml) 122 [81–195] 110 [66–172] 0.023
MMP-10 (pg/ml) 1285 [942–1931] 1077 [790–1635] <0.001
TIMP-1 (ng/ml) 313 (100) 256 (74) <0.001
C-reactive protein (mg/l) 1.28 [0.46-2.68] 0.71 [0.35-1.80] <0.001
Interleukin-6 (pg/ml) 2.12 [1.35-3.86] 1.57 [1.06-2.50] <0.001
Tumor necrosis factor-α (pg/ml) 3.16 [2.33-4.42] 2.22 [1.68-2.85] <0.001
Soluble e-selectin (ng/ml) 35.7 (16.6) 31.1 (11.1) <0.001
Soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ng/ml) 435 (144) 378 (104) <0.001
  1. Data are presented as means (standard deviation), median [inter-quartile range], or percentages, as appropriate.
  2. Vascular complication: presence of previous CVD, macroalbuminuria, or proliferative retinopathy or the combination of microalbuminuria and non-proliferative retinopathy; BMI, body mass index; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate by CKD-EPI formula; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; TIMP-1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1.