TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin increases Cx43-mediated lipolysis of mesenteric adipose tissues in mice and humans. A. Immunoblots of TRPV1, p-CaM, Cx43, CaMKII, PPARδ, and HSL in mesenteric adipose tissues from WT and TRPV1-/- mice fed a ND, HD and HC. *P < 0.05 vs. WT ND, ##P < 0.01 vs. WT HD, ΔP < 0.05 vs. TRPV1-/- ND. B. Immunoblots of TRPV1, p-CaM, Cx43, CaMKII, PPARδ, and HSL in visceral adipose tissues from humans and WT and db/db mice. Obese + Cap indicates that visceral adipose tissues from obese humans were treated with capsaicin for 24 hours. Db/db mice were fed a standard laboratory chow (db/db ND) or standard laboratory chow plus 0.01% capsaicin (db/db NC). *P < 0.05 vs lean people, #P < 0.05 vs obese people, ΔP < 0.05 vs WT, ▲P < 0.05 vs db/db ND. The densitometric values of protein expression levels were all normalized to GAPDH or β-actin. Values are expressed as the mean ± SEM for 3 mice or people.