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Table 1 Characteristics of patients at the initiation of EBID or insulin treatment

From: The association of the treatment with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist exenatide or insulin with cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective observational study

  Insulin EBID EBID + Insulin
N 28551 2804 7870
Male π 13562 (48) 1130 (40) 3401 (43)
Age α 59 (14) 56 (11) 56 (11)
Diabetes duration (year) β 1.0 (0, 1) 1.0 (0.2, 1.8) 1.0 (0.1, 2.0)
Diabetes duration (year) α 1.2 (2.2) 1.6 (2.2) 1.8 (2.7)
White Caucasian π 12145 (43) 1214 (43) 3898 (50)
Black 3482 (12) 119 (4) 445 (60)
Hispanic 956 (3) 36 (1) 103 (2)
Ex-smoker π 8033 (33) 813 (35) 2452 (37)
Current smoker π 4499 (19) 321 (14) 874 (13)
BMI (kg/m 2 ) α 34.1 (8.3) 38.8 (7.9) 38.6 (7.8)
Overweight (BMI > 30 kg/m 2 ) π 5759 (24) 245 (10) 691 (10)
Obese π 15949 (65) 2186 (89) 6210 (89)
SBP (mmHg) α 131 (19) 130 (16) 130 (16)
DBP (mmHg) α 75 (11) 78 (10) 77 (10)
HbA1c (mmol/mol) Ω 62.8 59.6 63.9
HbA1c (mmol/mol) β 58.5 (50.8, 70.5) 56.3 (48.6, 66.1) 59.6 (50.8, 71.6)
HbA1c ≥ 7 % π 19804 (69) 1708 (61) 5606 (71)
LDL-C (mmol/L) α 5.34 (2.11) 5.40 (1.98) 5.16 (1.96)
Triglyceride (mmol/L) β 8.16 (5.43, 12.32) 9.15 (6.43, 12.93) 9.27 (6.44, 13.43)
Follow-up (year) β 3.4 (1.8, 4.5) 3.3 (1.3, 4.5) 3.5 (3.0, 4.8)
Medication
Metformin π 16549 (58) 2534 (90) 6969 (89)
Sulfonylurea π 12291 (43) 1682 (60) 5309 (67)
Thiazolidinedione π 8589 (30) 1348 (48) 4218 (54)
ACE/ARB π 22210 (78) 1990 (71) 6116 (78)
Beta Blocker π 15156 (53) 1108 (40) 3444 (44)
Statin π 23037 (81) 2355 (84) 6964 (88)
Anti-hypertensive π 24513 (86) 2339 (83) 6916 (88)
Aspirin 18683 (65) 1672 (60) 5467 (70)
Disease history prior to index date
Renal π 1187 (4.16) 57 (2.03) 332 (4.22)
HF π 901 (3.16) 48 (1.71) 191 (2.43)
MI π 286 (1.00) 22 (0.78) 73 (0.93)
Stroke π 351 (1.23) 14 (0.50) 82 (1.04)
IHD π 1865 (6.53) 184 (6.56) 702 (8.92)
PVD π 581 (2.03) 37 (1.32) 170 (2.16)
Angina π 160 (0.56) 24 (0.86) 70 (0.89)
  1. αMean (SD); β Median (Q1, Q3); πN(%),ΩMean.