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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Systemic arteriosclerosis and eating behavior in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with visceral fat accumulation

Variable All Visceral fat accumulation P value
(+) group (−) group
n (Males/Females) 75 (41/34) 53 (32/21) 22 (9/13) 0.14**
Age (years) 64.8 ± 11.5 63.0 ± 12.7 69.1 ± 6.2 0.09+
Body weight (kg) 69.2 ± 19.7 75.8 ± 19.5 53.1 ± 7.2 <0.001 +
Body mass index (kg/m2) 26.4 ± 5.8 28.5 ± 5.4 21.3 ± 2.3 <0.001 +
Waist circumferences (cm), all 94.2 ± 13.2 100.0 ± 11.5 81.3 ± 6.7 <0.001 +
Males 95 ± 14.4 99.4 ± 12.9 79.3 ± 5.1 <0.001 +
Females 93.3 ± 11.9 100.0 ± 9.1 82.7 ± 7.5 <0.001 +
eVFA (cm2), all 136.7 ± 7.8 164.4 ± 60.0 70.0 ± 21.0 <0.001 +
Males 151.4 ± 73.0 174.2 ± 66.0 70.7 ± 18.7 < 0.001 +
Females 118.9 ± 55.5 149.4 ± 46.9 69.5 ± 23.3 < 0.001 +
Duration of diabetes (years) 14.6 ± 10.5 12.7 ± 9.1 19.1 ± 12.4 0.04 +
Diabetic retinopathy n = 19 (25%) 11 (21%) 8 (36%) 0.24*
Diabetic nephropathy n = 23 (31%) 18 (34%) 3 (14%) 0.27*
Hypertension n = 56 (75%) 39 (74%) 17 (77%) 1.00*
Dyslipidemia n = 58 (77%) 45 (85%) 13 (59%) 0.03 *
Metabolic syndrome n = 52 (69%) 52 (98%) -  
Systolic BP (mmHg) 128.1 ± 15.5 129.6 ± 15.6 124.5 ± 14.8 0.20#
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 73.9 ± 12.0 75.3 ± 12.0 70.7 ± 11.4 0.12#
Glucose (mg/dl) 150.1 ± 47.0 153.0 ± 49.0 142.9 ± 42.0 0.44+
HbA1c (NGSP) (%) 8.7 ± 1.7 8.8 ± 1.7 8.5 ± 1.9 0.33+
serum C-peptide (ng/ml) 2.2 ± 1.7 2.5 ± 1.8 1.4 ± 0.7 0.005 +
T-Cho (mg/dl) 190.2 ± 40.5 194.0 ± 44.4 181.1 ± 27.8 0.35+
TG (mg/dl) 170.7 ± 233.8 199.3 ± 273.4 103.1 ± 40.1 0.001 +
LDL-C (mg/dl) 105.6 ± 33.2 108.4 ± 36.0 99.0 ± 24.8 0.20#
HDL-C (mg/dl), all 50.2 ± 14.6 46.5 ± 12.4 58.9 ± 15.9 0.003 #
UA (mg/dl) 5.5 ± 1.5 5.7 ± 1.6 5.0 ± 1.1 0.03 #
eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2) 72.9 ± 19.6 73.9 ± 21.3 70.5 ± 15.1 0.42+
uACR (mg/gCr) 67.8 ± 147.8 72.6 ± 167.4 56.1 ± 84.0 0.97+
CCA max IMT (mm) 1.80 ± 0.80 1.75 ± 0.79 1.92 ± 0.82 0.39+
CCA mean IMT (mm) 0.98 ± 0.30 0.99 ± 0.32 0.98 ± 0.25 0.89+
Medications     
for diabetes     
Sulfonylureas n = 36 (48%) 26 (49%) 10 (45%) 0.81*
Glinides n = 6 (8%) 4 (8%) 2 (9%) 1.00*
Biguanides n = 24 (32%) 18 (34%) 6 (27%) 0.79*
Alpha-GIs n = 14 (19%) 8 (15%) 6 (27%) 0.33*
Thiazolidinediones n = 6 (8%) 4 (8%) 2 (9%) 1.00*
DPP-4 inhibitors n = 22 (29%) 17 (32%) 5 (23%) 0.58*
Insulin n = 15 (20%) 10 (19%) 5 (23%) 0.76*
GLP-1 analogs n = 8 (11%) 7 (13%) 1 (5%) 0.42*
for hypertension     
ACEI/ARBs n = 37 (49%) 26 (49%) 11 (50%) 1.00*
for dyslipidemia     
Statins n = 37 (49%) 26 (49%) 11 (50%) 1.00*
  1. Data are mean ± SD [minimum-maximum], or number of subjects (frequency (%)). eVFA; estimated visceral fat area, BP; blood pressure, NGSP; National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program, T-Cho; total cholesterol, TG; triglyceride, LDL-C; LDL cholesterol, HDL-C; HDL cholesterol, UA; uric acid, eGFR; estimated glomerular filtration rate, uACR; urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, CCA; common carotid artery, IMT; intima-media thickness, Alpha-GI; alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, DPP-4; dipeptidyl peptidase-4, GLP-1; glucagon-like peptide-1, ACEI; angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB; angiotensin II receptor blocker. **Fisher’s exact test (males vs females), +; Mann-Whitney’s U test ((+) group vs (−) group), *Fisher’s exact test ((+) group vs (−) group), #; Welch’s t-test ((+) group vs. (−) group).