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Table 4 Changes in fasting serum lipids and ketone bodies at day 29

From: Effect of empagliflozin monotherapy on postprandial glucose and 24-hour glucose variability in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 4-week study

  Placebo (n = 20) Empagliflozin 10 mg (n = 20) Empagliflozin 25 mg (n = 19)
Total cholesterol, mg/dl    
Baseline 212.8 (7.7) 200.1 (8.4) 208.7 (9.1)
Change from baseline at day 29 −0.8 (3.6) 3.2 (3.7) 1.1 (3.7)
 Difference vs placebo (95% CI)   4.0 (−6.6, 14.6) 1.9 (−8.6, 12.3)
 p-value   0.455 0.722
HDL-cholesterol, mg/dl    
Baseline 46.8 (2.2) 47.6 (2.8) 46.8 (2.8)
Change from baseline at day 29 0.1 (1.2) 4.7 (1.3) 7.4 (1.3)
 Difference vs placebo (95% CI)   4.5 (1.0, 8.1) 7.2 (3.7, 10.8)
 p-value   0.014 <0.001
LDL-cholesterol, mg/dl    
Baseline 128.7 (6.3) 124.9 (8.4) 130.5 (8.5)
Change from baseline at day 29 −1.3 (3.2) 3.4 (3.3) 4.3 (3.3)
 Difference vs placebo (95% CI)   4.7 (−4.6, 14.0) 5.7 (−3.5, 14.8)
 p-value   0.314 0.221
Triglycerides, mg/dl*    
Baseline 159.6 (51.0) 131.5 (34.9) 142.2 (48.0)
Relative change from baseline at day 29 1.0 (0.9, 1.1) 0.8 (0.7, 0.9) 0.7 (0.6, 0.8)
 Difference vs placebo (95% CI)   0.8 (0.7, 1.0) 0.7 (0.6, 0.8)
 p-value   0.037 <0.001
Free fatty acids, mg/dl    
Baseline 10.8 (0.8) 9.6 (0.7) 9.3 (0.6)
Change from baseline at day 29 3.1 (0.8) 4.8 (0.8) 7.4 (0.8)
 Difference vs placebo (95% CI)   1.7 (−0.6, 4.1) 4.3 (2.0, 6.7)
 p-value   0.149 <0.001
Ketone bodies, μmol/l    
Baseline 86.8 (10.2) 78.1 (12.0) 69.4 (10.8)
Change from baseline at day 29 −12.2 (44.0) 139.5 (44.7) 408.0 (45.5)
 Difference vs placebo (95% CI)   151.7 (24.4, 279.0) 420.2 (293.3, 547.2)
 p-value   0.021 <0.001
  1. Unless otherwise indicated, baseline data are mean (standard error [SE]), change from baseline data are adjusted mean (SE) based on analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) in the treated set. Fasting measurements. *Log-transformed data; baseline data are gMean (%CV) and change from baseline data are adjusted gMean ratio (95% CI).