Exenatide-inhibited osteoblastic differentiation and calcification of human CVSMCs requires NF-κB. A) Human CVSMCs were treated with different concentrations of exenatide for 48 hrs. Representative Western blot of RANKL, AMPKα, p-AMPKα, ERK1/2, p- ERK1/2, JNK, p-JNK, NF-κB, p-NF-κB protein expression. B) Semi-quantitative analysis of bands in Western blot. GAPDH was used as the loading control. Bars represent meanmean ± SD. *P < 0.01 and #P < 0.001 between two indicated groups. N = 5.