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Table 4 Mortality rate per 10 000 person-years and multivariate adjusted hazard ratios for cardiovascular disease mortality among non-diabetic and diabetic individuals by sex and body mass index categories or sex-specific quartiles of anthropometric measures of abdominal obesity

From: Obesity attenuates gender differences in cardiovascular mortality

  BMI, kg/m2 WC, cm* WHR* WHtR*
<25.0 25.0-29.9 30.0-34.9 ≥35.0 <90 (F)/99 (M) ≥90 (F)/99 (M) <0.85 (F)/0.97 (M) ≥0.85 (F)/0.97 (M) <0.56 (F)/0.57 (M) ≥0.56 (F)/0.57 (M)
Non-diabetic (n = 17 056)          
Mortality rate (95% CI)          
Women 9 (6-13) 14 (10-19) 29 (20-41) 50 (30-76) 12 (9-15) 29 (22-39) 14 (11-17) 24 (17-32) 11 (9-14) 32 (24-41)
Men 26 (21-32) 41 (35-48) 57 (44-73) 45 (18-92) 30 (26-34) 59 (50-71) 31 (27-35) 60 (49-71) 28 (24-33) 66 (56-78)
Sex ratio in CVD mortality rate (M/F) 2.9 3.0 2.0 0.9 2.5 2.0 2.3 2.5 2.6 2.1
Hazard ratios (95% CI)          
Women 1.0 (Reference) 1.0 (0.7-1.6) 1.8 (1.1-3.0) 3.3 (1.9-5.8) 1.0 (Reference) 1.8 (1.3-2.6) 1.0 (Reference) 1.5 (1.0-2.2) 1.0 (Reference) 2.0 (1.4-2.8)
Men 3.6 (2.4-5.4) 3.9 (2.7-5.7) 4.6 (3.0-7.0) 4.1 (1.8-9.4) 3.3 (2.5-4.3) 4.4 (3.3-5.8) 3.0 (2.3-3.8) 4.1 (3.1-5.4) 3.3 (2.5-4.4) 4.7 (3.5-6.3)
Sex ratio in CVD mortality risk (M/F) 3.6 (2.4-5.4) 3.7 (2.7-5.3) 2.5 (1.6-3.8) 1.3 (0.5-3.0) 3.3 (2.5-4.3) 2.4 (1.7-3.3) 3.0 (2.3-3.8) 2.7 (1.9-3.9) 3.3 (2.5-4.4) 2.4 (1.8-3.3)
Hazard ratios (95% CI)          
Women 1.0 (Reference) 1.1 (0.7-1.7) 1.9 (1.2-3.0) 3.3 (1.9-5.8) 1.0 (Reference) 1.9 (1.4-2.8) 1.0 (Reference) 1.8 (1.2-2.6) 1.0 (Reference) 2.0 (1.4-2.9)
Men 3.2 (2.1-4.8) 3.4 (2.3-4.9) 3.9 (2.5-6.0) 3.8 (1.7-8.6) 2.9 (2.2-3.8) 3.8 (2.8-5.1) 2.6 (2.0-3.3) 4.1 (3.1-5.6) 2.9 (2.2-3.9) 4.0 (2.9-5.4)
Sex ratio in CVD mortality risk (M/F) 3.2 (2.1-4.8) 3.1 (2.2-4.4) 2.1 (1.4-3.2) 1.2 (0.5-2.7) 2.9 (2.2-3.8) 2.0 (1.4-2.7) 2.6 (2.0-3.3) 2.3 (1.6-3.3) 2.9 (2.2-3.9) 2.0 (1.4-2.7)
Diabetic (n = 4499)          
Mortality rate (95% CI)          
Women 39 (22-63) 52 (36-74) 57 (37-84) 70 (43-407) 40 (28-57) 64 (49-83) 37 (26-51) 73 (55-94) 35 (23-51) 66 (51-83)
Men 54 (36-77) 118 (95-144) 138 (103-182) 146 (80-245) 80 (64-99) 138 (113-167) 89 (72-108) 130 (105-160) 84 (67-105) 128 (105-154)
Sex ratio in CVD mortality rate (M/F) 1.4 2.3 2.4 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.4 1.8 2.4 1.9
Hazard ratios (95% CI)          
Women 1.0 (Reference) 1.0 (0.6-1.9) 1.0 (0.5-1.8) 1.3 (0.7-2.5) 1.0 (Reference) 1.1 (0.7-1.7) 1.0 (Reference) 1.3 (0.8-1.9) 1.0 (Reference) 1.2 (0.8-1.9)
Men 1.3 (0.7-2.3) 2.2 (1.3-3.8) 2.5 (1.4-4.4) 2.7 (1.3-5.7) 1.8 (1.2-2.7) 2.4 (1.6-3.5) 2.2 (1.5-3.2) 2.4 (1.6-3.6) 2.2 (1.4-3.4) 2.3 (1.5-3.6)
Sex ratio in CVD mortality risk (M/F) 1.3 (0.7-2.3) 2.2 (1.5-3.3) 2.6 (1.6-4.1) 2.1 (1.1-4.2) 1.8 (1.2-2.7) 2.2 (1.6-3.0) 2.2 (1.5-3.2) 1.9 (1.4-2.7) 2.2 (1.4-3.4) 1.9 (1.4-2.6)
Hazard ratios (95% CI)          
Women 1.0 (Reference) 1.0 (0.5-1.8) 0.9 (0.5-1.7) 1.0 (0.5-1.9) 1.0 (Reference) 1.2 (0.8-1.8) 1.0 (Reference) 1.3 (0.9-2.0) 1.0 (Reference) 1.3 (0.8-2.1)
Men 1.3 (0.7-2.4) 1.9 (1.1-3.2) 1.9 (1.1-3.5) 1.6 (0.8-3.4) 1.9 (1.2-2.9) 2.1 (1.4-3.2) 2.1 (1.4-3.2) 2.3 (1.5-3.5) 2.2 (1.4-3.6) 2.3 (1.4-3.6)
Sex ratio in CVD mortality risk (M/F) 1.3 (0.7-2.4) 1.9 (1.3-2.9) 2.2 (1.3-3.6) 1.7 (0.9-3.4) 1.9 (1.2-2.9) 1.8 (1.3-2.6) 2.1 (1.4-3.2) 1.7 (1.2-2.4) 2.2 (1.4-3.6) 1.7 (1.2-2.4)
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, WC waist circumference, WHR waist-to-hip ratio, WHtR waist-to-height ratio, F female, M male, CI confidence intervals.
  2. *The top quartile of WC, WHR or WHtR in women (90 cm, 0.85 or 0.56) and in men (99 cm, 0.97 or 0.57) was used as the obesity group.
  3. Hazard ratios (95% CI) from the Cox proportional hazards model using attained age as time-scale. Hazard ratios (95% CI) from the Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for baseline smoking status, leisure-time physical activity, and cohort using attained age as time-scale.