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Table 3 Mortality rate per 10 000 person-years and multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for cardiovascular disease mortality in men and women by body mass index categories or sex-specific quartiles of anthropometric measures of abdominal obesity

From: Obesity attenuates gender differences in cardiovascular mortality

  BMI, kg/m2 WC, cm* WHR* WHtR*
<25.0 25.0-29.9 30.0-34.9 ≥35.0 <90 (F)/99 (M) ≥90 (F)/99 (M) <0.85 (F)/0.97 (M) ≥0.85 (F)/0.97 (M) <0.56 (F)/0.57 (M) ≥0.56 (F)/0.57 (M)
No. of CVD deaths          
Women 90 107 81 61 173 166 195 144 159 180
Men 241 459 198 47 506 439 555 390 480 465
Mortality rate (95% CI)          
Women 7 (6-9) 13 (11-16) 25 (20-31) 45 (34-58) 9 (8-10) 29 (25-34) 10 (9-11) 27 (22-31) 8 (7-10) 32 (27-37)
Men 25 (22-29) 41 (37-45) 63 (54-72) 78 (57-104) 28 (26-31) 67 (61-74) 29 (27-32) 70 (63-77) 26 (24-28) 77 (70-84)
Sex ratio in CVD mortality rate (M/F) 3.5 3.0 2.5 1.7 3.2 2.3 3.0 2.6 3.2 2.4
Hazard ratios (95% CI)          
Women 1.0 (Reference) 1.0 (0.8-1.3) 1.5 (1.1-2.0) 2.8 (2.1-3.9) 1.0 (Reference) 1.9 (1.5-2.3) 1.0 (Reference) 1.6 (1.3-2.0) 1.0 (Reference) 2.0 (1.6-2.5)
Men 3.1 (2.5-4.0) 3.5 (2.8-4.3) 4.5 (3.5-5.7) 6.5 (4.6-9.3) 3.2 (2.7-3.8) 4.8 (4.0-5.7) 3.0 (2.6-3.6) 4.5 (3.8-5.3) 3.2 (2.7-3.9) 5.1 (4.2-6.1)
Sex ratio in CVD mortality risk (M/F) 3.1 (2.5-4.0) 3.5 (2.8-4.3) 3.0 (2.3-3.8) 2.3 (1.6-3.4) 3.2 (2.7-3.8) 2.6 (2.1-3.1) 3.0 (2.6-3.6) 2.7 (2.3-3.3) 3.2 (2.7-3.9) 2.6 (2.2-3.0)
Hazard ratios (95% CI)          
Women 1.0 (Reference) 1.0 (0.8-1.4) 1.6 (1.1-2.1) 2.8 (2.0-3.8) 1.0 (Reference) 1.9 (1.6-2.4) 1.0 (Reference) 1.8 (1.5-2.3) 1.0 (Reference) 2.1 (1.7-2.6)
Men 2.8 (2.2-3.6) 3.1 (2.5-3.9) 3.8 (2.9-4.9) 5.4 (3.8-7.7) 2.9 (2.4-3.4) 4.1 (3.4-5.0) 2.7 (2.3-3.2) 4.2 (3.5-5.1) 3.0 (2.5-3.6) 4.4 (3.6-5.3)
Sex ratio in CVD mortality risk (M/F) 2.8 (2.2-3.6) 3.0 (2.4-3.7) 2.4 (1.8-3.2) 2.0 (1.3-2.9) 2.9 (2.4-3.4) 2.1 (1.8-2.6)§ 2.7 (2.3-3.2) 2.3 (1.9-2.8) 3.0 (2.5-3.6) 2.1 (1.8-2.5)§
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, WC waist circumference, WHR waist-to-hip ratio, WHtR waist-to-height ratio, F female, M male, CVD cardiovascular disease, CI confidence intervals.
  2. *The top quartile of WC, WHR or WHtR in women (90 cm, 0.85 or 0.56) and in men (99 cm, 0.97 or 0.57) was used as the abdominal obesity group.
  3. Hazard ratios (95% CI) from the Cox proportional hazards model using attained age as time-scale.
  4. Hazard ratios (95% CI) from the Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for baseline smoking status, leisure-time physical activity, and cohort using attained age as time-scale.
  5. §Significance level = 0.05 for interactions between obesity and gender.