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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the overall study population and classified according to the medians of baPWV and maxIMT

From: Clinical utility of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in the prediction of cardiovascular events in diabetic patients

Parameters All patients (n = 1040) baPWV maxIMT
   <1550 cm/s (n = 520) ≥1550 cm/s (n = 520) <1.0 mm (n = 460) ≥1.0 mm (n = 580)
Gender (male,%) 65.0 65.4 64.6 62.6 66.9
Age (years) 58.9 ± 9.6 55.2 ± 10.1 62.5 ± 7.6* 55.1 ± 10.0 61.8 ± 8.2*
Smoking habit 47.9 47.5 48.3 45.0 50.2
Body mass index (kg/m2) 23.9 ± 3.5 24.0 ± 3.9 23.8 ± 3.1 23.8 ± 3.9 24.0 ± 3.2
HbA1c (%) 7.2 ± 1.1 6.7 ± 1.1 6.8 ± 1.1‡ 6.8 ± 1.1 6.8 ± 1.2
Duration of diabetes (years) 4.8 ± 4.4 4.2 ± 3.2 5.5 ± 5.2* 4.4 ± 3.2 5.1 ± 5.1‡
Systolic BP (mmHg) 131 ± 17 126 ± 16 137 ± 17* 128 ± 16 133 ± 17*
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 80 ± 11 80 ± 11 81 ± 11 81 ± 11 80 ± 12
Presence of hypertension (%) 73.8 63.1 84.6* 69.9 77.1†
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 188 ± 29 188 ± 29 187 ± 29 188 ± 29 187 ± 29
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 59 ± 16 59 ± 16 58 ± 17 61 ± 18 57 ± 15*
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 106 ± 24 106 ± 23 105 ± 25 104 ± 23 107 ± 24
Triglyceride (mg/dl) 120 ± 89 120 ± 102 121 ± 73 120 ± 100 121 ± 78
Presence of dyslipidemia (%) 70.0 69.4 70.6 69.6 70.3
Serum creatinine (mg/dl) 0.77 ± 0.36 0.75 ± 0.28 0.79 ± 0.43 0.74 ± 0.22 0.79 ± 0.45‡
Framingham risk score (%) 27.4 ± 16.8 21.3 ± 14.3 33.4 ± 17.0* 21.9 ± 14.9 31.7 ± 17.0*
Administration of      
Anti-diabetic drugs (%) 70.3 66.3 74.2† 68.7 71.6
Anti-hypertensive drugs (%) 38.8 27.7 49.8* 32.4 43.8*
Anti-hyperlipidemic drugs (%) 40.6 39.6 41.5 40.4 40.7
  1. Data are shown as% or means ± SD.
  2. *p < 0.001 for bivariate comparisons between patients classified according to the medians of the baPWV levels and the maxIMT.
  3. †p < 0.01 for bivariate comparisons between patients classified according to the medians of the baPWV levels and the maxIMT.
  4. ‡p < 0.05 for bivariate comparisons between patients classified according to the medians of the baPWV levels and the maxIMT.