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Table 5 The impact of each component of RAMP-DM intervention on the change in biomedical measurements and cardiovascular risks

From: Effects of the Multidisciplinary Risk Assessment and Management Program for Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (RAMP-DM) on biomedical outcomes, observed cardiovascular events and cardiovascular risks in primary care: a longitudinal comparative study

  Multiple linear regressiond
  Advanced Nurse Intervention Associate consultant intervention Allied health professionals consultation PEP
  Coefficients (95% CI)
Change in HbA1c (%) −0.01 (−0.12, 0.12) −0.12(−0.34, 0.107) −0.19(−0.40, 0.01) −0.19(−0.42, 0.05)
Change in TC 0.05 (−0.06, 0.16) −0.33 (−0.50, −0.16)** −0.09 (−0.27, 0.09) −0.32 (−0.51, −0.13)**
Change in HDL-C 0.01 (−0.02, 0.04) 0.01 (−0.04, 0.04) −0.03 (−0.08, 0.02) −0.03 (−0.07, 0.02)
Change in LDL-C 0.09 (−0.04, 0.22) −0.26 (−0.46, −0.06)* −0.11 (−0.19, 0.17) −0.22 (−0.45, 0.02)
Change in Triglyceride 0.08 (−0.12, 0.27) −0.40 (−0.71, −0.09)* −0.12 (−0.45, 0.20) −0.26 (−0.61, 0.08)
Change in SBP −0.88 (−2.79, 1.03) 2.18 (−0.70, 5.06) −2.45 (−5.70, 0.81) −1.11 (−4.51, 2.29)
Change in DBP −0.35 (−1.48, 0.77) 0.56 (−1.15, 2.26) −0.72 (−2.62, 1.17) 2.43 (0.42, 4.43)*
Change in BMI −0.01 (−0.20, 0.19) −0.07 (−0.39, 0.22) −0.18 (−0.47, 0.10) −0.28 (−0.60, −0.03)
Change in 10-year CVD riska −0.15 (−1.10, 1.41) −1.35 (−3.28, 0.01) −1.59 (−3.64, 0.45) −1.29 (−3.47, 0.01)
Change in 10-year CHD riskb −0.46 (−1.54, 0.62) −2.77 (−4.54, 1.00)** −1.31 (−3.02, 0.04) −1.72 (−3.81, 0.38)
Change in 10-year stroke riskc −0.04 (−1.02, 0.26) 0.99 (−0.20, 0.01) −0.05 (−1.68, 0.01) −0.02 (−1.30, 0.96)
  1. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01.
  2. aPredicted by the Framingham cardiovascular risk function.
  3. bPredicted by the UKPDS CHD risk engine.
  4. cPredicted by the UKPDS stroke risk engine.
  5. dAdjusted for confounding variables including age, sex, smoking status, duration of DM, type of DM, baseline value of the outcome measure, drugs at baseline and drugs at 12 months.
  6. BMI, body mass index; CVD, cardiovascular disease; CHD, coronary heart disease; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; DM, diabetes mellitus; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; HDL-C, high density lipid cholesterol; LDL-C, low density lipid cholesterol; TC, total cholesterol; PEP, patient empowerment program.