Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants in RAMP-DM group and usual care group

From: Effects of the Multidisciplinary Risk Assessment and Management Program for Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (RAMP-DM) on biomedical outcomes, observed cardiovascular events and cardiovascular risks in primary care: a longitudinal comparative study

  RAMP-DM (N = 1072) Usual care (N = 1072)  
  Mean ± SD or n(%) P-valuea
Demographic
Age (year) 64.3 ± 10.9 65.3 ± 11.7 0.056
Male 534 (49.8%) 534 (49.8%) 1.000
Smokers 106 (9.9%) 90 (8.4%) 0.231
Cluster information    0.767
HKEC 268 (25.0%) 278 (25.9%)  
KCC 270 (25.2%) 274 (25.6%)  
KWC 256 (23.9%) 262 (24.4%)  
NTEC 278 (25.9%) 258 (24.1%)  
Clinical
T2DM 1064 (99.5%) 1006 (93.8%) <0.001
Duration of DM (year) 7.9 ± 6.2 7.9 ± 6.6 0.759
HbA1c (%) 7.26 ± 1.17 7.13 ± 1.17 0.033
TC(mmol/L) 5.05 ± 0.96 4.87 ± 0.94 <0.001
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.23 ± 0.34 1.23 ± 0.33 0.830
LDL-C (mmol/L) 3.10 ± 0.80 2.89 ± 0.79 <0.001
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.63 ± 1.08 1.56 ± 1.00 0.2495
SBP ≤ 140 mmHg 615 (58.7%) 634 (69.3%) <0.001
DBP ≤ 80 mmHg 700 (66.8%) 687 (75.1%) <0.001
SBP/DBP ≤ 140/80 mmHg 538 (58.8%) 491 (46.9%) <0.001
No(%) reaching treatment target
HbA1c < 7% 467 (50.54%) 384 (54.9%) 0.079
SBP < 130 mmHg 365 (34.8%) 412 (45.0%) <0.001
DBP < 80 mmHg 700 (66.8%) 687 (75.1%) <0.001
SBP/DBP < 130/80 mmHg 323 (30.8%) 381 (41.6%) <0.001
LDL-C < 2.6 mmol/L 154 (27.3%) 132 (39.4%) <0.001
Predicted cardiovascular risk (%)
Framingham 10-year CVD riskb 35.18 ± 20.68 33.32 ± 20.16 0.0882
UKPDS 10-year CHD riskc 23.25 ± 16.29 22.00 ± 15.90 0.177
UKPDS 10-year stroke riskd 14.51 ± 15.21 15.06 ± 15.79 0.6439
  1. aIndependent t-test for continuous variables and Chi square test for dichotomous variables.
  2. bPredicted by the Framingham cardiovascular risk function.
  3. cPredicted by the UKPDS CHD risk engine.
  4. dPredicted by the UKPDS stroke risk engine.
  5. BMI, body mass index; CVD, cardiovascular disease; CHD, coronary heart disease; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; DM, diabetes mellitus; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; HDL-C, high density lipid cholesterol; HKE, Hong Kong East Cluster; KCC, Kowloon Central Cluster; KWC, Kowloon West Cluster; LDL-C, low density lipid cholesterol; NTEC, New Territories East Cluster; TC, total cholesterol. T2DM, Type 2 diabetes mellitus.