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Table 2 Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of atrial fibrillation (AF) among patients with diabetes in Taiwan from 1999–2010

From: Association of metformin with lower atrial fibrillation risk among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a population-based dynamic cohort and in vitro studies

  Unadjusted HR P Adjusted HR P
(95% CI) (95% CI)
Age     
 18-49 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
 50-64 4.49 (4.01-5.03) <.0001 3.17 (2.83-3.56) <.0001
 ≥65 16.64 (14.97-18.49) <.0001 8.10 (7.25-9.04) <.0001
Sex     
 Female 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
 Male 1.38 (1.33-1.44) <.0001 1.33 (1.28-1.38) <.0001
Comorbidity     
 Hypertension 4.39 (4.15-4.63) <.0001 1.27 (1.19-1.35) <.0001
 Congestive heart failure 5.48 (5.25-5.71) <.0001 2.72 (2.60-2.84) <.0001
 Chronic kidney disease 1.75 (1.67-1.84) <.0001 - - - -
 Asthma 1.96 (1.87-2.05) <.0001 1.10 (1.05-1.15) <.0001
 Hyperthyroidism 1.00 (0.92-1.10) 0.9433   
 Myocardial infarction 3.00 (2.73-3.29) <.0001 1.27 (1.15-1.39) <.0001
 Ischemic stroke 2.27 (2.16-2.39) <.0001 1.06 (1.01-1.12) 0.0192
 Sleep apnea syndrome 0.95 (0.78-1.16) 0.6049   
 Peripheral arterial disease 2.52 (2.20-2.90) <.0001 1.22 (1.06-1.40) 0.0055
Medication     
 Metformin 0.80 (0.75-0.85) <.0001 0.81 (0.76-0.86) <.0001
 Anti-hypertensives* 6.87 (6.36-7.42) <.0001 3.08 (2.83-3.35) <.0001
 Statin 1.18 (1.13-1.23) <.0001 0.85 (0.81-0.89) <.0001
  1. *angiotensin receptor blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, beta blockers, and calcium channel blockers.
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