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Table 1 Demographic and comorbidity characteristics of the DM patients diagnosed by status of metformin use

From: Association of metformin with lower atrial fibrillation risk among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a population-based dynamic cohort and in vitro studies

  First year (n = 645,710) ≥10th year (n = 140,871)
  Non-users* Users P Non-users* Users P
(n = 560,512) (n = 85,198) (n = 126,240) (n = 14,631)
Sex    <.0001    0.2560
 Female 281325 (50.2%) 44179 (51.9%)   73268 (58.0%) 8420 (57.6%)  
 Male 279187 (49.8%) 41019 (48.2%)   52972 (42.0%) 6211 (42.5%)  
Age, years       
 Mean ± SD 58.6 ± 17.1 57.0 ± 14.8 <.0001§ 53.7 ± 17.0 55.4 ± 15.0 <.0001§
Co-morbidity       
 Hypertension 301047 (53.7%) 54032 (63.4%) <.0001 71480 (56.6%) 10601 (72.5%) <.0001
 Congestive heart failure 42886 (7.7%) 5162 (6.1%) <.0001 11056 (8.8%) 1507 (10.3%) <.0001
 Chronic kidney disease 75572 (13.5%) 7337 (8.6%) <.0001 22788 (18.1%) 2449 (16.7%) <.0001
 Asthma 77366 (13.8%) 11888 (14.0%) 0.2352 22437(17.8%) 2898 (19.8%) <.0001
 Hyperthyroidism 22517 (4.0%) 3042 (3.6%) <.0001 8286 (6.6%) 877 (6.0%) 0.0082
 Myocardial infarction 8542 (1.5%) 1165 (1.4%) 0.0005 2186 (1.7%) 305 (2.1%) 0.0022
 Ischemic stroke 46557 (8.3%) 6207 (7.3%) <.0001 12739 (10.1%) 1818 (12.4%) <.0001
 Sleep apnea syndrome 3949 (0.7%) 1058 (1.2%) <.0001 1874 (1.5%) 319 (2.2%) <.0001
 Peripheral arterial disease 4238 (0.8%) 399 (0.5%) <.0001 1387 (1.1%) 165 (1.1%) 0.7500
Medication       
 Anti-hypertensives 345487 (61.6%) 60278 (70.8%) <.0001 87769 (69.5%) 11896 (81.3%) <.0001
 Statin 100497 (17.9%) 31918 (37.5%) <.0001 32403 (25.7%) 6755 (46.2%) <.0001
  1. *Nonusers were adults (age18 years) with no record of metformin use.
  2. Users were adults who used metformin.
  3. Chi-squared test.
  4. §Independent t test.
  5. Angiotensin receptor blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, beta blockers, and calcium channel blockers.
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